Se muestran los artículos pertenecientes a Marzo de 2007.
«The sum of all listening to satellite channels mentioned by the half million diarykeepers in the Arbitron Fall 2006 survey totaled 3.4 percent of credited quarter-hours.
fonte: «Arbitron: Satellite Radio Accounts For 3.4% Of All Radio Listening», radio Ink, 01/03/07
Fred Jacobs comenta: «As you have no doubt read by now, satellite radio's overall share falls in at a 3.4 level. Divide that among all the different satellite channels mentioned, and their average "station" cruises in at .009 share. The most-listened to sat channel (wonder which one that might be?) roared in at a .2. Not exactly like the dream advertising platform. And it certainly reinforces the notion that a merger may be the only way to save both companies from overinvesting in programming, at the expense of sales (and I'm a programming guy). As budgets become tighter - especially among younger consumers - and iPod connectivity (and eventually, the Internet) becomes ubiquitous in vehicles, Wall Street will continue to question the model. As we continually hear from our focus groups and our tech polls, listeners continue to push back at the notion of paying for radio.»
«“Is fragmentation occurring? Sure it is. But it’s always occurred for radio. You (reporter covering the call) write about the iPod. Ten years ago your predecessor was writing about CDs and 20 years before that his predecessor was writing about 8-Tracks. It’s always something.», Cox Radio President/CEO Bob Neil in «Cox's Neil: I'll Take Radio», radio Ink, 1/03/07
«During the Q&A portion of the Cox earnings call on Tuesday, Cox Radio President/CEO Bob Neil said, “We continually fight to try and make advertisers understand what the value of our medium is. It's not unlike the fight that our media brothers and sisters go through all the time.
fonte: «Cox's Neil: I'll Take Radio», radio Ink, 1/03/07
Mark Ramsey chama a atenção para o site RadioTime «that aggregates content from your station's stream and tons of others.Then, they showcase that content in a form that will be more attractive to a broad base of potential listeners. For example, as I write this I can choose from 237 stations if I want to tune in Bill O'Reilly's "Radio Factor." What? The show's not in right now in your town? Chances are it's on somewhere, and RadioTime can help you find it.»
É mais importante ter os conteúdos ou gerir os conteúdos?
«Take your music on the road with seamless integration between your car and your iPod. A host of top automakers offer elegant solutions for both new cars and prior-year models. Or choose after-market iPod integration options from leading car stereo accessory manufacturers and outfit any car to play well with iPod.»
«TMN lança em exclusivo novo single dos Da Weasel no Music Box. Lisboa, 1 de Março de 2007 – A partir do próximo dia 5 de Março, os clientes da TMN vão poder aceder em primeira mão, através do Music Box, a um exclusivo mundial, “Dialectos da Ternura”, novo tema da banda portuguesa Da Weasel. Verdadeira loja de música, o Music Box é um serviço da TMN que permite pesquisar, seleccionar e fazer download de músicas de entre um catálogo de mais de 600 mil temas. (...) Esta estreia mundial é um exclusivo da TMN, em parceria com a EMI, podendo ser adquirida por 1,49 euros, através do portal tmn i9. Os clientes TMN que adquiram os telemóveis Sony Ericsson W300i e Nokia 5200, dois modelos orientados para a música, poderão aceder gratuitamente ao tema. Tratando-se de uma autêntica loja de música, o Music Box permite aos clientes da TMN pesquisar, seleccionar e fazer download de mais de 600 mil faixas integrais de música, através do telemóvel, no portal tmn i9, por um preço único de 1,49 euros. O serviço é compatível com uma gama alargada de modelos especialmente vocacionados para funcionalidades relacionadas com a música, dos quais se destacam, para além dos já referidos acima, o Samsung X830 e o Nokia N70 Music Edition, este último a disponibilizar brevemente. A promover o Music Box da TMN estará no ar, também a partir de 5 de Março, uma campanha multimeios, abrangendo imprensa, rádio e televisão. Nos pontos de venda TMN, os clientes podem ainda encontrar cartazes, folhetos e postais promocionais do mais recente tema dos Da Weasel.» (informação oficial da TMN, 01/03/07) Esta aposta reforça a liderança da maior empresa de telecomunicações móveis do país, também operador multimedia focalizado nas expectativas e tendências de utilização do telemóvel dos seus clientes.
«A Internet foi o único meio de comunicação que registou um crescimento acentuado em 2006, no que diz respeito ao investimento publicitário: acima dos 50 por cento, quando em 2004 e em 2005 o ritmo de evolução positiva já rondava os 30%. Esta é a conclusão do estudo da agência Initiative Group, divulgado no número de Janeiro da revista «moResearch». Em matéria de subidas, os anúncios em «outdoors» também cresceram, a um ritmo de 5%. Nas perdas publicitárias, a rádio foi a que mais decresceu no ano passado, com menos 6,5% de anúncios. A publicidade também desceu na imprensa (menos 2,5%) e em televisão (menos 0,5%). De acordo com a empresa Initiative Group, a derrapagem de 0,6% em matéria de investimento publicitário face a 2005, deve-se «ao andamento da economia mas também às expectativas negativas dos agentes económicos. A realização de eventos mediáticos como o Mundial de Futebol e o Rock in Rio «não foram suficientes para dinamizar os investimentos.»
fonte: Agencia Financeira, «Publicidade na Internet cresce 50% em 2006» 2007/02/19
From Bridge Ratings: "The new semi-annual study from Bridge Ratings & Research indicates the number of monthly Internet radio listeners nationwide has... increased to 72 million monthly listeners from 45 million at the end of 2005. "In 2005, weekly Internet radio listening was at 15% of the U.S. population 12 and over. This new study shows that as of January 2007 that figure increased 26% to 19% of all persons 12 and older. This translates to 57 million listening to Internet Radio on a weekly basis..."Last year's study revealed that 16% of those on-line had listened to an AM/FM simulcast on the Internet. This study, completed in January 2007 with a sample of 3000 persons 12+, showed 21% having had listened to an AM/FM simulcast in the last 30 days...
"Internet radio listening is primarily a work-hour phenomenon, with 75% of all on-line listening occurring between 5 a.m. Pacific and 5 p.m. Pacific. This is down from 81% in 2005. Increased at-home listening grew to 25% 5 a.m to 5 p.m. and 79% 7 p.m - midnight Monday through Friday.
"Thirty-five percent of Internet radio listeners were between the ages of 25 and 34. 60% were younger than 35, 33% were younger than 25, and 5% were older than 55."» (RAIN, «Study, 27 new...», 22/02/07)
quando se fala em publico dos 14 aos 29 anos muitas vezes a atitude da industria publicitária é esta: «"If it's young we can't sell it. We can't sell it because it's young."».
Ou seja, como lhe chama Mark Ramsey, trata-se de público "unsellable". Daí um nulo interesse em se lhes dirigir. Daí um desinteresse notório deste público na generalidade dos meios convencionais.
«With the emergence of iPods, WiFi, satellite radio, and other new media, is radio in danger of losing younger listeners?
«The distinctions between old and new technologies may soon disappear as radio, television, satellite technologies and the Internet are combined in innovative ways to reach a wide range of target audiences» (youth in civil society; UN)
Terá de se ter em atenção que estamos a falar de sociedades industrializadas, onde as taxas de penetração dos meios de comunicação de social são elevadas. De acordo com as Nações Unidas, «For example, 331 out of every 1,000 people in Europe use the Internet, but the same is true for only around 92 per 1,000 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 37 per 1,000 in the Middle East and North Africa, and 15 per 1,000 in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Although these data are not age-specific, young people are among the principal users of computers and are likely highly represented in these figures. It is important to note that the disparities are not as great for the use of older forms of technology such as radio and television, which makes these media extremely useful for information distribution. For xample, rates of radio ownership are 813 per 1,000 in Europe, 410 per 1,000 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 277 per 1,000 in the Middle East and North Africa, and 198 per 1,000 in sub-Saharan Africa (World Bank, 2004)».
«Global youth culture is created, adapted, accessed and disseminated largely through worldwide telecommunications networks that are rapidly expanding to reach many different parts of the world. The Internet, local and satellite television and radio, and other popular media are the channels through which youth-oriented cultural influences are transferred using music, direct advertising, websites and other means. Defined within this context, the current youth culture is clearly international in nature, as the consumption habits associated with it are to be found wherever young people have purchasing power».
«Some examples include Radio Arte in Mexico, an all-youth-produced bilingual community radio station that trains and encourages youth to develop self-expression through the broadcast medium (see http://radioarte.org); the South African show Youth Network Television (YNTV), created in 1995 by Ubuntu Television; Blast, a British Broadcasting Corporation initiative encouraging 13- to 19-year olds throughout the United Kingdom to get involved in media production, and Chat the Planet, a television show and Internet community that connects groups of young Americans aged 15 to 25 years with their peers around the world, via satellite, for honest dialogue (see http://www.chattheplanet.com).» http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unyin/documents/wyr05part2.pdf
«BOSTON - Os gastos anuais com filmes baixados pela web chegarão a US$ 4 bilhões em 2011, frente aos autais US$ 111 milhões/ano. Os dados são de pesquisa da Adams Media Research. "A Internet vai revolucionar a distribuição de vídeos", afirmou o presidente da empresa de pesquisas, Tom Adams. O crescimento vai ser alimentado pelo surgimento de equipamentos como a Apple TV, um decodificador de 299 dólares que converte vídeos baixados da Internet em sinais que são exibidos em TVs de alta-definição. A Apple já está vendendo esse produto no site e vai iniciar as entregas no final do mês. A Adams Media Research aposta que os downloads vão crescer gradualmente à medida que os novos equipamentos obtiverem mais aceitação no mercado. A evolução desse mercado prevista pela pesquisa é de alcançar 472 milhões de dólares em 2007, 1,2 bilhão de dólares em 2008, 2 bilhões de dólares em 2009, 3,1 bilhões de dólares em 2010 e 4,1 bilhões de dólares em 2011. Nesse período, a propaganda em sistemas de transmissão de vídeos para PCs e TVs deve chegar a 1,7 bilhão de dólares.»
fonte: Info online, Abrim.com, «Download de vídeos cresce fortemente», 21 de fevereiro de 2007
«(...) Para lá das dúvidas face ao trabalho da comunicação social, aos olhos de 57% dos entrevistados "as coisas passaram-se tal e qual ou, pelo menos, de modo muito aproximado" aos relatos radiofónicos, afirma o vigésimo barómetro La Croix-TNS Sofres - realizado com base num universo de mil inquiridos e particularmente aguardado por todos devido ao actual contexto político do país. A rádio, desde sempre considerada como o media mais fiável, ganha assim um pouco mais de terreno na consideração dos franceses.
O mesmo estudo avança ainda ser a imprensa escrita a segunda posicionada no ranking da credibilidade mediática (com 51%), seguida pela televisão (que ganha, contudo, quatro pontos relativamente ao ano passado) e pela Internet, a conquistar a confiança de 30% dos franceses, contra os 24% anotados em 2006.» (fonte: DN, 'Verdade' da rádio aligeira desconfiança nos media, Ana Pago, 21/02/07)
«But music is not the only thing the iPod, and its retail-business brother, the iTunes Music Store, shuffles. Downloading podcasts- of commercial and public radio shows or home-brew audio concoctions - adds the intimacy of old fashioned radio to the mix.» (Levy, 2006: xi)
«it is the most familiar, and certainly the most desirable, new object of the twenty-first century» (Levy, 2006: 1)
«Clear Channel Radio CEO John Hogan informed employees via an internal memo that his company has signed up for PPM ratings in Philadelphia, just one day after the first PPM data for that market was released. However, he says Clear Channel remains committed to the process it launched a while back to investigate other forms of electronic measurement, including a test of the Media Audit's cell-phone based system that's slated to launch in Houston.
fonte: «Clear Channel Signs Up For PPM In Philly», Radio Ink, 2/03/07
«By the end of 2005, Apple Computer had sold more than 42 million iPods, at prices ranging from to 9 (most sold in the middle range). What's more, at that time the iPod had about 75 percent market share of the entire category of digital music players. Its online digital music emporium, the iTunes Music Store, has sold more than a billion songs at 99 cents each, representing about 85 percent of all legal paid downloads, a market that barely existed before Steve Jobs (...)» (Levy, 2006: 3)
Uma mistura de coisas: «Digital technology gathers, shreds, and empowers, all at once. Mix, mash, rip, burn, plunder, and discover: these are the things that the digital world can do much more easily than before- or for the first time. The iPod, and the download dollar-store that accompanies it, makes sense of those things without making our brains hurt.» (Levy, 2006: 4)
A escolha aleatória: «(...)the best way, I discovered, was to find the setting that said "shuffle", click through the menus till you got to a list of all your songs, pick a starting place, and go. From that point, your whole collection would resequence itself in glorious chaos. It was like my own private radio station that played only songs that I liked - after all, I had put them there» (Levy, 2006: 18)
Moda: «Most emphatically, the iPod has taken on that adjective almost as a birthright. What is the link between coolness and iPods? Is trendiness a significant component of the iPod's success? Why has the world of fashion embraced the iPod? Why won't your kids accept a generic substitute, which plays the same damn songs an iPod does?» (Levy, 2006: 59)
Capacidade de armazenagem: «In fact, in 2005, a Solutions Research Group study showed that the average iPod owner has 504 songs; a different survey found that the average was 900. Apple Executive Vice President Phil Schiller says that Apple has concluded that a limit of 1,000 songs turns out to be the "sweet spot" for most people, the number that sticks in most people's minds as the most they'll need. (A 2004 Jupiter Research study backs him up further: it found that only 23 percent of consumers said that they'd ever need more than 1,000 songs on their player at one time.)» (Levy, 2006: 84)
Blogues e iPods: «Blogging and iPods were a great match, two innovations that had enjoyed a parallel run to glory in the early 2000s. Many people blogged about their iPods - what they were listening to on the iPod, what color they ad chosen for their boyfriend, how they slept with the iPod under their pillow, and how pissed they were that they had bought a new iPod just before Apple released a newer, cooler iteration. ("iPod" as, in fact, the most popular 'tag' or category, in the massive blog massive search engine Technorati.) (Levy, 2006: 129-130)
«Headline writers and cultural critics talk of an 'iPod Generation.' This can mean a number of things - sometimes it's just a shorthand way of saying "young people" - but generally it's used to depict a mind-set that demands choice and the means to scroll through ideas and ideologies as easily as a finger circles the wheel on the iconic front panel of an iPod. "It seems to me that a lot of younger listeners think the way the iPod the iPod thinks;' wrote Alex Ross in The New Yorker. "They are no longer so invested in a single way of seeing the world". (Levy, 2006: 4)
Alex Ross: «I have seen the future, and it is called Shuffle—the setting on the iPod that skips randomly from one track to another. (...) It seems to me that a lot of younger listeners think the way the iPod thinks. They are no longer so invested in a single genre, one that promises to mold their being or save the world.» («LISTEN TO THIS»,by ALEX ROSS, New Yorker, Issue of 2004-02-16 and 23)
«Twenty years later, the Internet became the communications trend du jour, and even wilder predictions were made about its future. We know now that every optimistic prognostication made during the early nineties about the Internet, no matter how outlandish, underestimated what actually happened. No one back then dared to claim that within a decade a billion people would be connected, that many times more e-mails than letter would be sent, that the biggest stores in the world would have no walls (...)» (Levy, 2006: 121)
«Years ago, radio had abandoned the idea of providing variety to listeners and instead concentrated on putting just a few well-tested songs on "heavy rotation" so the most popular tunes at the moment (generally the lowest artistic common denominator, catchy and forgettable stuff) would dominate the airwaves. Who could tolerate such unimaginative programming when there were iPods, which could shuffle thousands of songs that had passed the ultimate focus group - you, the sole listener, endorsing every cut because you consciously ripped it into the system?» (levy, 2006: 248)
«Radio industry consultants, explicitly pandering to the millions of people perpetually zoned into the permanent shuffle of their own music collections, have tried to answer this challenge with the first major new broadcast format in years. It is dubbed "Jack'. The name comes from the buddy-buddy moniker assigned to the ocasional voice-over interspersed between tunes - though some staions call their voices Bob or Hank or Dave or Max. Instead of ticking to a playlist of a couple of dozen carefully chosen songs, a Jack station draws on a selection of hundreds, spanning several decades and multiple genres. The unofficial motto of Jack is «If you can't beat 'em, join 'em. "The almost anything - goes eclecticism of the format, sometimes called adult hits, seems to appeal to listeners accustomed to scanning through thousands of MP3s at a time", explains a New York Times reporter. WCBS, the New York City station that adopted the format, puts it more blatantly in one of its promos: "It's like an iPod, only the batteries never run out". But why accept someone else's version of your iPod when you have the real thing?» (Levy, 2006: 248)
«So we have companies like Pandora, seeking to, as its founder, Tim Westergren, puts it, "understand the DNA of music'. His company, which now contracts with Barnes & Noble, Best Buy, AOL, and Tower Records to make music recommendations for their custamers, employs thirty "music analysts" with a minimum requirement of a four-year degree in music theory. Every time a song arrives in this musical DNA shop, an analyst will devote twenty to thirty minutes of intense concentration to identifying as many as our hundred distinct variables, or "genes". Just to capture the emotional metrics of the singing voice, there are thirty-two variables: things like timbre, vibrato, pitch, and range. "Any voice can be understood as the combination of these genes", says Westergren. When this system is applied to all the instruments as well as the traits of the song - tempo, amplitude, etc. - the analyst produces a précis. If done right, says Westergren, another analyst can look at and virtually play the whole song in his or her head. More to the point, using this Music Genome Project, you can automate what a disk jockey does to customize a set according to your tastes» (levy, 2006: 252)
«And for people who don't have the time to go out and find music? There's Pandora, an online streaming music service that suggests new songs based on ones you already like. "We would like to be the best radio station in the world for everybody," claims Tim Westergren, the founder. Professional musicians at Pandora have spent the last six years analyzing songs based on 400 different musical attributes called the music genome project. "We have this DNA of music and when you come to Pandora you type in the name of a song you like. Pandora takes a looks at that song's DNA and tried to find musical neighbours."» (http://www.cbc.ca/theend/radio.html)
Mais um estudo que confirma aquilo que empiricamente se temia: o tempo não é elástico e se há mais telemóveis e leitores de audio digital, é normal que algo seja sacrificado. (só 16 por cento gastam o seu tempo «mediático» com a rádio)
«Bridge Ratings & Research recently concluded the second phase of its study on the media habits of 15-24 year olds and has confirmed initial perceptions that young people continue to spend less time listening to the radio as a result of increased use of the internet, cell phones and MP3 players. The study conducted during the second half of 2006 found that 33% of 15-24 year olds are listening to less radio as a result of their time on the Internet, while 10% are spending more time. The 33% number is up from 20% in a similar study taken in August 2005. Other findings of the study include: nearly a quarter (24%) watching less conventional TV with an almost identical number (22%) saying they are spending more time watching video on the Internet on such sites as YouTube, Yahoo! and MySpace, or streamed replays of prime time shows on TV network websites. The study also found that young people are spending most of their total media time (23%) online, more than watching television (22%), listening to the radio (16%) and listening to their MP3 players (19%). The study used a sample of 2620 people aged 15-24 years in Dallas, Washington, DC, Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, Portland (OR) and St. Louis (MO).»
fonte: «Bridge Ratings Youth Audience Media Use Study 2007», 14/02/07
Mark Ramsey, no seu Hear2.0, acha que não. Surpreendemente, defende que «my own research has clearly shown that heavy mp3 player users tend to listen to as much radio as anyone else - but are less satisfied with what they hear on the radio». Como?
«The Copyright Royalty Board (CRB) has announced its decision on Internet radio royalty rates, rejecting all of the arguments made by Webcasters and instead adopting the "per play" rate proposal put forth by SoundExchange(a digital music fee collection body created by the RIAA).
comentário de Kurt Hanson (RAIN): «Because a typical Internet radio station plays about 16 songs an hour, that's a royalty obligation in 2006 of about 1.28 cents per listener-hour. In 2006, a well-run Internet radio station might have been able to sell two radio spots an hour at a net CPM (cost-per-thousand), which would add up to .6 cents per listener-hour. Even adding in ancillary revenues from occasional video gateway ads, banner ads on the website, and so forth, total revenues per listener-hour would only be in the 1.0 to 1.2 cents per listener-hour range. That math suggests that the royalty rate decision — for the performance alone, not even including composers' royalties! — is in the in the ballpark of 100% or more of total revenues. —KH»
fonte: RAIN, webcast royalty rate decisiob announced» 2/03/07
ACT : já há quem decrte o fim da rádio pela internet: «The royalty increases are so high that many Web-based radio stations will have to go out of business or dramatically increase advertising to cover the royalty fees. "It's the end of Internet radio as we know it," one broadcaster fumed. "The RIAA wants to put us all out of business."»
«Motorola's iRadio mobile music solution is on hold for a while. The much-hyped service that had been in beta testing for more than a year now is going back to the drawing board for some major revisions, in the hopes it can one day see the light of day.
fonte: «Motorola's iRadio Delayed, February 28, 2007, Billboardbiz, by Antony Bruno
«(...)says Automotive Analyst, Clare Hughes. “According to our consumer research, US car buyers listen to radio nearly 60 percent of their audio entertainment time. There are around 160 million consumer vehicles on the road in the US, but only 14 Million satellite radio subscribers in total.”»
fonte: «STRATEGY ANALYTICS: XM Sirius Merger Boosts Automotive Radio Adoption», 1/03/07
«BBC Radio and National Grid Wireless have announced a trial of a new transmission technology which will allow the two organisations to assess the practicality of digital radio services in the medium-wave bands. The trial, which will last for a year, will be centred on Plymouth. From the end of April, the BBC and National Grid Wireless will re-use a current medium-wave frequency in the Plymouth area to broadcast a trial digital service using the digital radio mondiale (DRM) standard. DRM is an emerging technology which has been designed to facilitate digital radio at frequencies below 30 MHz. The BBC, which has been involved in the engineering research and development of the standard over the last few years, already makes the BBC World Service available on short-wave using the technology to some parts of western Europe and north Africa.(...)»
Há até quem pense que isto vai substituir o DAB:
«The two big advantages of DRM is that it can be broadcast via existing AM transmitters, so no need for all that expensive investment. Second, and more important, DRM signals are stronger and can be broadcast for much longer distances than DAB. Why is this important? At present only around 85% of the UK can receive DAB, with the BBC inching its way towards its target of 90%. But even those who can get it can only listen to the stations on the two national multiplexes (soon to be three) and their regional multiplex offerings. DRM could transform that. But the adoption of DRM, as a replacement or as a rival to DAB, could be a huge spanner in the works of digital radio in the UK. DAB has only just got off the ground, and two rival systems could cause no end of consumer confusion, even with radios that can receive both. The DRM trial comes at a tricky time for DAB, with listeners such as the Guardian's Jack Schofield complaining that the signal quality is not as good as analogue FM. One critic devastatingly branded it "the new medium wave". So much for the digital revolution.»
Tudo porque há quem continue descontente com o DAB:
«This is piffle, especially in a British context. It reflects the disappointment in some quarters with the perceived failure of digital broadcasters in the UK to deliver on their promise of CD-quality sound.»
Este artigo do New York Times (reproduzido pelo IHT) parece indicar que sim: a partir da fusão da Sirius com a XM, e a consequente eliminação de canais repetidos, sobraria mais espaço e dinheiro para investir na emissão de imagem/Informação
Por um lado, «The first phase of the business — beaming dedicated music, sports and talk-radio stars like Howard Stern and Opie and Anthony directly to consumers — has not proved to have a clear advantage over old technology like free radio and newer ones like the iPod. So now satellite companies are looking into what other services they can offer to make them appealing to motorists». ALém disos, «that trying to create a better iPod than Apple is a losing proposition.”
Alguns esforços já foram feitos:
«The future services Mr. Parsons foresees are more modest. One, invisible to users, involves using the satellites to keep the data on in-car navigation systems constantly and automatically up to date. Another is a trick the iPod learned long ago: displaying album cover art when songs are playing. But there are limits to what even a combined satellite radio company can do. Satellite systems effectively do not allow two-way transmissions, ruling out services such as e-mail. And without enormous reinvestment, the systems are not likely to approach the transmission speeds of WiMax, a new wireless technology being developed by Nortel Networks and others that will probably start operating within the year. Those systems, like cellphone networks, will pass moving users from tower to tower and offer transmission speeds comparable to high-speed, wired connections in homes. Susan Kevorkian, an analyst with IDC, said that the satellite radio connections with automakers would give them a significant advantage over WiMax, at least in the short term.»
«Currently, subscribers are tied to receivers, not users. Ms. Kevorkian said that limits the willingness of people to own more than a single receiver as well as the time they spend listening to the systems»
«(...) have long argued, the market is shifting towards options which facilitate "control" (like iPods) and away from options which provide more "choice," but not much "control" like radio or satellite.Anyone who thinks "choice" and "control" are the same doesn't know the difference between 500 TV channels and a DVR»; (...) «The significance of all this, of course, is that value may be rooted in the content itself, but the big bucks are in the entity that takes that content, organizes it, customizes it, and filters it. Just ask Google»
«The big opportunity of the future is in finding a way to unobtrusively and effortlessly present new music. Radio as we know it will be replaced by digital music services that tie seamlessly into music distribution systems. Access and ownership will ultimately converge. If my digital “radio station” delivers my favorite playlists on demand—anytime and anywhere—the only reason I would accept another service would be that the service is more personal. It is likely that the very term “radio” will go the way of the word “record”—into the dustbin, or on to the digerati-wordsmiths to morph into the future.»
«The big opportunity of the future is in finding a way to unobtrusively and effortlessly present new music. Radio as we know it will be replaced by digital music services that tie seamlessly into music distribution systems. Access and ownership will ultimately converge. If my digital “radio station” delivers my favorite playlists on demand—anytime and anywhere—the only reason I would accept another service would be that the service is more personal. It is likely that the very term “radio” will go the way of the word “record”—into the dustbin, or on to the digerati-wordsmiths to morph into the future.»
Leonhard; Kusek, the future of music, pág 27
O guru Al Ries acha que «Radio is a powerful medium with great selectivity at relatively low costs, but Radiado threatens the very existence of the medium. Too much is too much»: O problema, diz, é que a rádio tem excesso de publicidade. Por isso diz que «For every ad that radio stations used to run, it now seems like they run two. Radio, in my opinion, has become Radiado, an extra "ad" inserted at every possible point in the programming». E no seu dia a dia, «My favorite radio personality is Neal Boortz, a nationally syndicated talk-show host who broadcasts out of Atlanta on 171 stations. I listen to Boortz every morning during the commute to my office in Roswell. Yet at the top of the hour, I turn off my radio and don't turn it back on until 8 minutes after the hour. Why? Because that's radio's black hole. Eight solid minutes of commercials, traffic, weather, news and more commercials. The second black hole occurs at the bottom of the hour, but it's not quite as bad. I turn off my radio for only 6 minutes». Por isso conclui que «The biggest health problem in America today is obesity. The biggest advertising problem in America today is obesity, too»
fonte: «How Radio Is Becoming RadiADo», AL Ries, Advertising Age, 4/03/07
Mark Ramsey já comentou: «(...) ask the deeper question: If radio featured significantly less advertising, would that keep listeners away from their CD's and iPods and satellite radios and TV's and video games? Indeed, would that make the radio industry a healthier one? Less is not more unless less is zero. Then less is called "subscription."»
Continuam as ondas de choque provocadas pelo anuncio de novas tabelas no pagamento de direitos de autor para os canais de streaming (basicamente: os aumentos podem chegar a mais de 100 por cento; antes o valor era calculado por uma lei de 2002, cada rádio na net pagava, por musica e por ouvinte, 0,07 centimos; lei essa que deixou de valer em 2005; a nova proposta fala em aumentos -retroactivos - de 00,7 para 0,08 centimos de dolar, crescendo até atingir os 0,19 centimos em 2010; mais a taxa fixa anual minima de 500 dolares; é citado o exemplo da AccuRadio, com mais de 300 estações, que gerou em 2006 receitas de 400 mil dolares; terá de com esta proposta de lei 600 mil dolares em direitos)
Há que os que resistem, para contrariar: «Faced with last week's Copyright Royalty Board decision, which threatens to shutter the huge majority of Internet radio operations in the U.S., webcast audiences are rushing to respond, signing online petitions and calling the attention of their elected officials to the Webcasters' struggle. There are already a number of destinations for Internet radio listeners to support Webcasters in their fight against this latest ruling. Below is a list of sites where Webcasters and audiences alike can discuss the ruling, contact members of Congress, and generally contribute to helping to keep Internet radio online» e há os que fazem contas: «Larger services that offer thousands of channels, such as the free Pandora, are also facing a huge spike in royalty costs. Kurt Hanson, publisher of RAIN and CEO of AccuRadio, went so far as to speculate that Pandora, which is based in the United States, could "disappear" as a result of the new rates. Overseas competitors like Last.fm, which is based in London and removed from the board's restrictions, could easily claim Pandora's market share» (fonte: Wired News, By Eliot Van Buskirk 08:00 AM Mar, 06, 2007)
Na Business Week: «The decision, due to take effect sometime during the next two months, could raise royalty fees paid by some online radio stations more than tenfold—enough to put many smaller stations out of business, Hanson says. Currently, most small Webcasters have paid royalties calculated as a percentage of revenue. Under the new rule, those outfits will begin paying on a per-song, per-listener basis. "The more intensively an individual service is used and consequently the more the rights being licensed are used, the more the service pays, and in direct proportion to the usage," according to the 115-page ruling. Here's what the change will mean for AccuRadio. The station employs six full-time staff members and records about 0,000 in annual sales, mostly from advertising. Of that, Hanson pays record labels about ,000 in royalty fees. The rule change, which will impose fees retroactively, will jack up royalty fees to more than 0,000 for 2006. Other Webcasters will be in the same boat. "I don't think any of the operators would break even," Hanson says. "Internet radio is in danger of becoming extinct," shouts a headline posted on the company's Web site, urging listeners to sign a petition or send a message to Congress. "The rates are so high that they exceed 100% of most Webcasters' total revenues!"»
«Former US attorney general John Ashcroft is now rallying against the proposed merger between Sirius and XM, though onlookers are questioning his motivations. Ashcroft was recently hired by the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) to battle against the tie-up, part of a larger effort by the terrestrial radio group to dissuade merger approval. In a letter to current attorney general Alberto Gonzales, Ashcroft pointed to a dangerous merger that "reduces the number of competitors from two to one," and warned that the plan "raises most serious competition concerns." In the attack, Ashcroft also likened the proposed marriage to the unsuccessful merger attempt between satellite television providers DirecTV and EchoStar, a rejection that will continue to hover over the ongoing review process» (Digital Music News, 4/03/07, Ashcroft Jumps Into Radio Battle, Joins Terrestrial Camp)
"Ashcroft attacks Sirius-XM deal"
"XM: Ashcroft Offered Services To XM Before Being Hired By NAB"
«A rádio em Portugal tem vindo a cimentar as suas potencialidades e a registar uma tendência de aumento do consumo no carro, segundo os dados do Bareme Rádio da Marktest. O estudo permitiu concluir que o consumo de rádio está cada vez mais «colado» aos ritmos de deslocação diária das populações, ganhando por isso a escuta no automóvel uma importância cada vez mais evidente. Consequentemente, refere o estudo, assiste-se à concentração da escuta em dois períodos do dia - entre as 08:00 e as 10:00 da manhã e entre as 17:00 e as 20:00 da tarde - períodos normais de deslocação casa/trabalho e vice-versa. A observação transversal dos vários períodos, mostra que a casa enquanto local de escuta tem uma curva notoriamente descencente em qualquer momento do dia e, por contraposição, o carro tem uma curva notoriamente ascendente mesmo fora dos períodos normais de deslocação. Ainda segundo este estudo, a perda de escuta em casa é claramente compensada quer pela transferência para o automóvel, quer pela tendência crescente da escuta no local de trabalho. Entre 1997 e 2006 o consumo de rádio em casa decaiu cerca de 39%, enquanto que a escuta de rádio no carro subiu, no mesmo período, 65%. O automóvel é desde 2005 o local onde mais portugueses ouvem rádio. Ou seja, a primeira evidência é a de que a rádio tem deixado progressivamente o lar e passado para o automóvel. »
fonte: Portugueses ouvem cada vez mais rádio no carro 07-03-2007 13:40:24
«In the 1980 book, The Third Wave , futurologist Alvin Toffler coined the term prosumer when he predicted that the role of producers and consumers would begin to blur and merge (even though he described it in his book "Future Shock" from 1970). Toffler envisioned a highly saturated marketplace as mass production of standardized products began to satisfy basic consumer demands. To continue growing profit, businesses would initiate a process of mass customization, that is, the mass production of highly customized products» (fonte: wikipedia)
«Bands are no longer dependent on top 40 playlists and MTV to get their music out. The under 25 generation shares ideas and music on the internet and social networking sites like My Space are changing the music industry. "Today if you're number one on My Space, that's more important than MTV and radio combined," says author Gerd Leonhard» (fonte: «THE END: RADIO», CBC Newsworld, ?)
«Ratings for rock radio stations have been languishing for years. The share of the 18-to-34 age group that is tuning in to alternative stations has shrunk by more than 20 percent in the last five years, according to Arbitron, while stations playing rap and R&B or Spanish-language formats have enjoyed an expanding audience. As a result, many rock programmers aren't sure what to play. "The format in the last couple of years has gone through an identity crisis," said Kevin Weatherly, program director of KROQ, a closely watched alternative powerhouse in Los Angeles. "You have stations that are too cool, that move too quickly and are only playing the coolest music, which doesn't at the end of the day attract enough of the audience. Or you have the other extreme, dumb rock, red-state rock that the cool kids just flat out aren't into." (...) Some analysts fear that, when radio stations switch from alternative rock to programming aimed at older listeners, they may be making a sacrifice. "Radio has ceded the younger demographic to other media," said Fred Jacobs, president of Jacobs Media, a radio consulting company in Southfield, Mich., specializing in rock. "I just don't know how we're going to get back people who didn't get into the radio habit in their teens," he said, adding, "It really becomes problematic down the road."».
fonte: New York Times, «Fade-Out: New Rock Is Passé on Radio», By JEFF LEEDS, April 28, 2005
«Mr. Hanson also suggested that land-based radio had been too slow to respond to satellite radio, which offers access to dozens of commercial-free music channels for a monthly subscription fee and to digital music players, like Apple Computer's iPod. He said that he balked when a supervisor suggested running an on-air contest to give away an iPod loaded with 949 songs. (Zeta's frequency was 94.9-FM.) "I was like, 'Then they don't need to listen to Zeta anymore.' " Mr. Hanson wound up forgoing the contest.»
fonte: New York Times, «Fade-Out: New Rock Is Passé on Radio», By JEFF LEEDS, April 28, 2005
«Podcasting is not only a converged medium (bringing together audio, the web and portable media devices) but also a disruptive technology and one that has already forced some in the radio business to reconsider some established practices and preconceptions about audiences, consumption, production and distribution. Whilst Audible was established to provide speech content for these devices, the automation, free access and the radio-like nature of Podcasts contribute to the disruptive nature of the new medium. It is an application of technology that was not developed, planned or marketed and yet its arrival does challenge established practices in a way that is not only unprecedented but also unpredictable.»
«Podcaster and author of one of the many ‘how to’ books on the topic, Todd Cochrane, describes Podcasting as ‘Walkaway Content’ which is a neat and vivid way of describing it (Cochrane, 2004)» (Berry, 145).
«(...) at the Radio Festival 2005.6 A presentation on research carried out for the BBC by Sparkler not only discussed a fall in radio listening amongst 16–29-year-olds in the previous two years but, like OFCOM, gave radio’s lost audience a name: the ‘digi-life generation’: an audience which has grown up knowing digital choice, computers, the internet and mobile telephones (Gallie and Robson, 2005).7 This is an audience which communicates via text messages (SMS) and instant messaging and for whom using technology is easy and second nature. It is clear that for radio as a business to develop it should recognize these fundamental changes in the lifestyles and expectations of the audience. My own conversations with students reflect what the industry is hearing in their research. Young people are disconnected by contemporary broadcast radio and seek out new forms online or choose their own music over radio. Most cite poor commercials, overly tight playlists and stations that do not target them directly as their reasons for not tuning in as often as the previous generation did. It would seem that the notion of audiences choosing the least objectionable – or the least worst – is over, with no radio being preferable to unsuitable radio (MacFarland, 1997: 17).» Berry, 149
Trata-se de um conceito mais cultural do que demográfico, ou seja descreve mais um período cultural e não tanto todas as pessoas que nasceram depois de um determinado período de tempo ou numa geração. De qualquer forma, insere-se numa certa tradição, com origem nos EUA, de catalogação de pessoas com determinadas características. Douglas Coupland escreveu «Generation X» em 1991 para descrever aqueles que tendo nascido depois de 1970 viveram a sua adolescência nos anos 80, com determinadas características agregadoras (ao nível das experiências, da música, etc). Sucedeu-se a Geração Y, para os nascidos a partir da década de 80.
Não fax sentido falar por exemplo em geração Xbox se a XBox não marcou uma geração
«Nunca la radio en España había tenido tanta audiencia como en 2006, hasta alcanzar un total de 20.897.000 oyentes, unos 400.000 más que el año anterior. Sin embargo, esta evolución se produce gracias a un cambio en los gustos favorable a las emisoras temáticas, que compensa de sobra la pérdida de oyentes de las generalistas. Hasta el punto de que en 2006 hubo ya más oyentes de radio temática, concretamente 11.007.000 oyentes, un 5 por ciento más que el año anterior, frente a los 10.942.000 de las cadenas generalistas, que se dejaron casi 330.000 oyentes en el último año.
fonte: «La radio temática logra superar en número de oyentes a la generalista», Granada Digital, 08/03/2007, OTR PRESS
NOTA: para os eventualmente interessados gostaria de alertar que rádio generalista em Espanha não é o mesmo que rádio generalista em muitos outros países (Estados Unidos, por exemplo) e que, tratando-se de uma espécie de corruptela histórica da expressão, estamos de falar de formatos adultos (Cadena Ser, Cope, ONce, etc.); ou seja de um segmento de ouvintes e não de programação para todos os ouvintes. Mais aqui, se interessar.
«Exasperated listeners weary of hearing the same songs over and over on the radio may have something to cheer about: a pair of innovative deals that could shake up the music playlists of some of the nation's largest radio-station chains.
fonte: «Stations To Pay .5M In FCC Settlement» Billboard.Biz, March 05, 2007, By Associated Press
«Radio, and latter television, was a more tightly controlled medium than was the printed press» (Benkler, 2006: 190)
INTRODUÇÃO AO PONTO 5« (...) with a small number of well-funded speakers and hordes of passive listeners. Within a short period, however, a combination of technology, business practices and regulatory decisions did in fact settle the model» (Benkler, 2006: 192)
«A new media world has arrived. Pioneered by teens and gadget-savvy professionals, it has quickly spread into virtually every consumer segment, and started to encroach on traditional media. The number of unique visitors to MySpace.com has now surpassed the 50 million mark – something akin to the number of U.S. households that tune into the Super Bowl. Every day, consumers around the world watch about 100 million videos on YouTube – putting that number in context, the top 15 British primetime television shows combined attract about 100 million viewers, as do the top 4 U.S. shows.»
fonte: «Navigating the media divide», IBM Institute for Business Value, 2007
« (...) two trends as particularly disruptive to mainstream media: the rising popularity of user-created content and the move toward open distribution platforms. In fact, these two axes of change clearly delineate the old and new worlds of media. In the traditional world, content produced by professionals and distributed through proprietary platforms still dominates. But in the new world, content is often user-created and accessed through open platforms. These polarized tendencies mark the clear and present conflict between incumbents and new entrants.»
fonte: «Navigating the media divide», IBM Institute for Business Value, 2007
«Although having the right kind of access and device is clearly a prerequisite for new media experiences, and very often an incentive to try new experiences, it is in no way a guarantee of actual consumer uptake. When a device enters the market, consumers may initially ignore some of its advanced features or use it in surprising ways. If the device is not easy to use, has limited functionality or does not really fit the user’s lifestyle, it will likely sit idle or underutilized. Examples of hesitant adoption are plentiful. Of the 15 million U.S. households with highdefinition television (HDTV) sets at year-end 2005, only 50 percent subscribed to HDTV content service plans. Likewise, of the 270 million Internet-enabled mobile phone users in Western Europe, only 20 percent were using their phones’ Internet capabilities.» NOTA: não se aplica ao iPod...
fonte: «Navigating the media divide», IBM Institute for Business Value, 2007
«Encouraged by available bandwidth and interactive multimedia possibilities, consumers are now clamoring for new roles. Those Gadgetiers and Kool Kids* that we just mentioned are not only interested in consuming content in new ways – they also want to create, manipulate and mash it. Between July 2005 and July 2006, five of the ten fastest growing Web sites were portals for user-generated content: imageShack.com, Heavy, Flickr, MySpace.com and Wikipedia [“Social Networking Sites Grow 47 Percent, Year Over Year, Reaching 45 Percent of Web Users, According Nielsen//Netratings.” PR Newswire. May 11, 2006]. Consumers are clearly passionate about being editors, producers and directors. The falling prices of sophisticated media editing and recording equipment and software have put the tools of the trade within reach of almost any aspiring talent or wannabee. The result is a blurring and merging of the roles of producer and consumer, or a “prosumer,” as coined by Alvin Toffler [Toffler, Alvin. The Third Wave. Bantam Books. March 1980]».
fonte: «Navigating the media divide», IBM Institute for Business Value, 2007
* Expressão usada inicialmente num estudo da IBM, «Berman, Dr. Saul J., Niall Duffy and Louisa A. Shipnuck. “The end of television as we know it: A future industry perspective.” IBM Institute for Business Value. January 2006» cujas características essenciais são:
«Kool Kids, who also prefer interactive and mobile media experiences and rely heavily on content sharing and social interaction. It is these last two groups of consumers – the Gadgetiers and Kool Kids – that will likely lead the way with multichannel entertainment consumption.» (...) «Kool Kids think and act much differently than the other two segments. To them, devices and services are all about fashion and making a statement. Form matters more than function. However, they’re young – and their wallets are much skinnier than those of Gadgetiers, making price an issue. Their social networks tend to be faddish, rising and falling out of favor quickly». Ou «Kool Kids. Marcus, age 13, and Semana, age 15, are brother and sister. Both were exposed to high bandwidth networks as very young children and they experiment unflinchingly with media and platforms. While they have little disposable income, they follow all the latest gadget crazes. The mobile device is the centerpiece of their lives and they text message while doing one, two or three other tasks. Though their parents refuse to allow it in their presence, Semana and Marcus even do instant messaging on the TV set while watching favorite shows. Marcus uses his tech-savvy to try to bypass network blocks and content encryption in order to rip and share content. Likewise, Semana doesn’t worry about piracy warnings as she trades copies of CDs with her friends. Without thinking about it, both are heavily invested in media experiences and spend much time seeking TV episodes, current films and hard-to-find, cool niche content. Like practically all their friends, these teenagers have posted detailed profiles to several social networking sites, relying on those connections for media recommendations and most other aspects of their lives»
«iPod Generation» aparece (pela primeira vez?) num relatório da Ofcom com o título «The iPod Generation; Devices and Desires of the Next Generation of Radio Listeners», elaborado por The Knowledge Agency e com data de 23 de Julho de 2004. Nesse relatório não é dada qualquer informação sobre a expressão, mas é uma feita uma caracterização desses ouvintes:
- a média dos possuidores de rádios digitais é de 51 anos. «Younger people are listening to the radio noticeably less than their parents» (18-30 anos)
- «Youth” defined as 18-30 year olds;› Old enough to make their own independent choices and have their own listening patterns;› Old enough to be able to afford at least some of the relevant technology; • Moderate, but not bleeding edge technophiles; – Interested in new technology; – Internet and mobile phone users; – All personally own two or more examples of new technology (MP3, digital camera, PC, Interactive TV, digital radio, etc). • All listen to at least 1 hour of radio per day (mix of stations)»
- “I gave up on radio quite a while ago... I’d much rather listen to my own music... because there’s far less chance of hearing music that I’m going to want to listen to on any radio station”. (20-30 year old working man, Cardiff)
«Lançado em Janeiro de 2006, o serviço de Podcast da TSF registou no mês de Fevereiro o seu número mais alto de ‘descarregamentos’. No total, foram 399.765 os conteúdos retirados do site da estação pelos cibernautas, um valor bem acima do anterior máximo, os 220.363 registados em Janeiro deste ano.
fonte: «Podcast da TSF com 400 mil ‘descarregamentos’ em Fevereiro», Meios e Publicidade, Hugo Real, 13 de Março de 2007
Isto abaixo significa que ouvimos rádio 6 horas no trabalho, duas horas e 19m em casa e menos duas horas no carro?
Isto não é contarditório com o que a Marktest disse a semana passada («A observação transversal dos vários períodos, mostra que a casa enquanto local de escuta tem uma curva notoriamente descencente em qualquer momento do dia e, por contraposição, o carro tem uma curva notoriamente ascendente mesmo fora dos períodos normais de deslocação. Ainda segundo este estudo, a perda de escuta em casa é claramente compensada quer pela transferência para o automóvel, quer pela tendência crescente da escuta no local de trabalho»)?
«Detalhando um pouco a abordagem, vejamos agora como se processa a evolução do tempo médio diário de audiência por local de escuta:Atendendo a que o carro é o local onde mais indivíduos ouvem rádio hoje em dia, é particularmente relevante que o tempo médio setenha mantido próximo das 2h diárias ao longo destes 10 anos abordados. Por outro lado, o local de trabalho apresenta uma tendência de subida, reforçando valores já elevados, enquanto que em casa a ligeira descida verificada é bem menos significativa do que outros aspectos, nomeadamente o peso deste local no total da escuta de rádio, já abordado no artigo anterior.»
fonte: «4,7 milhões de Portugueses ouvem mais de 3 horas de rádio todos os dias», Marktest.com, 13/03/07
«Apesar do aumento da digitalização, a rádio continua a ser o medium mais popular entre os holandeses, com mais de 40% do consumo de media durante o dia, com um pico pela manhã, segundo este estudo da Universal Media. De facto, a maioria dos holandeses têm a rádio no topo da manhã – desde as 6h00 a rádio é responsável por quase metade de todo o consumo de media. Mais tarde de manhã, a Internet torna-se crescentemente popular, com pico por volta das 11h00. A rádio continua a ser o médium mais popular até cerca das 17h00, altura em que a televisão toma conta do cenário. A Internet é também bastante popular ao final do dia, ficando em segundo lugar atrás da televisão, com perto de 30% de holandeses na web entre as 20h00 e as 22h00.»
fonte: «2006 Media in Mind – Rádio continua a ser o medium mais utilizado na Holanda», Obercom, Março 07
«LG Electronics and Sprint have just released a new phone, the Fusic, that not only streams channels from Music Choice (if you pay the freight) and downloads music (like many other phones do), but it is the first phone to include an iPod-style FM transmitter. To make that clear, it doesn't mean you can listen to radio on your phone, it means you can listen to whatever you stream on your phone on your radio. This will unquestionably be the first of many mobile devices that mask whatever's on the radio in favor of whatever's on the phone. And in case you're thinking "yes, but folks have to buy a Music Choice subscription," remember that in the world of mobile phones consumers are very accustomed to paying for useful supplemental services. And the ability to broadcast your own personal station to the radio in your car just increased the value of the Music Choice service. That said, I am certain consumers are much more likely to broadcast their own mp3's than the content of any third party streaming service. But still, anything that replaces what's on the radio is a radio substitute - especially if you use a radio to hear it. Ironically, this phone just increased the value of the good old-fashioned car radio. As long as you can play what you want on it.» (MarK Ramsey diz que estes aparelhos valorizam o velho rádio do carro mas não para ouvir a rádio...)
fonte: Hear2.0, «What happens when cell phones can hijack your radio?», 11/03/07
«A new research study about emerging video services, conducted by Leichtman Research Group, provides important clues about what 18-34 men really want. While 4% of 18+ adults watch video online daily, it's 18-34 guys who make up a whopping 41% of that viewing. And these same young men account for over two-thirds of adults who view video on sites like YouTube every day. This is another key reason why morning shows aimed at these 18-34 men need to seriously be integrating video into their shows. Whether it's via webcam, YouTube-type collections of videos, or user-generated pieces, we're dealing with a new generation of guys that really enjoys this form of entertainment. Morning shows and other personalities that tap into that desire can really set themselves apart in a big way, growing their male fan base in the process.»
fonte: Jacoblog, Vidiots, 13/03/07
«Web radio may be the biggest threat to radio since the advent of TV», diz-se neste artigo do Globe and Mail. «Without facing regulatory restrictions or a need to fight for space on a fixed radio dial, the Internet may just be the biggest threat to the radio industry since the advent of television -- and the established players, faced with a challenge to their business model, have stood up and taken notice. Just as telling as Mr. Woost's popularity at the conference is the fact that Internet radio has new enemies -- in particular the U.S. recording industry, which this month proposed aggressive royalties many feel could be the death knell for the industry. For now, there's no question Web radio is taking off. With the proliferation of WiFi as a catalyst, companies have been quietly pumping millions of dollars into developing new technologies. Some of the industry's key players are upstarts, such as last.fm and Oakland-based Pandora. The bigger sites are better-known Web portals, with Yahoo Launchcast and AOL Music topping the global list. Even they started small, but Yahoo Launchcast now draws enough listeners to equal the largest FM stations combined in a major U.S. city like New York.(...)»
fonte: «Everyone's on the same wavelength now», GRANT ROBERTSON, 10/03/07, Globe and Mail Update
Major hurdles still exist. For instance, despite the industry's huge technological advances, it is still essentially music played through a computer. While companies like AOL, Yahoo and others have been successful at targeting the so-called at-work audience, the industry has yet to encroach on the radio's traditional sweet spot: the car. If mass wireless Internet access emerges in major cities across the country, it could be a watershed moment for the industry. Portable Internet radio would be available via everything from cellphones to dashboards, attracting more advertisers. As it stands, the advertising industry for Web radio is estimated to be roughly 0-million (U.S.) for North America, but at least 80 per cent of that comes from ads on websites of AM and FM stations. Commercial revenue from music streaming makes up less than one-fifth of that amount. The biggest hurdle of all could be the looming battle over royalties. "The end-game is that unless the royalties change, webcasting is pretty much done in the U.S. Kaput," Mr. Cuban said. "That's a shame because streaming music to the office is a better opportunity than video. People can -- and will -- listen to music at work." (...) The music industry may be forced to develop a global system of compensation, Mr. Kennedy said. "I think in 10 years, Pandora will be listened to in the car, while you're jogging . . . and wherever else people listen to music," he said. "And that will be following the growth of wireless broadband to ubiquitous form."»
fonte: «Everyone's on the same wavelength now», GRANT ROBERTSON, 10/03/07, Globe and Mail Update
È só publicidade...
«U.S. radio’s ratings weakness continues, with fall numbers down 1.3%. Commenting recently on the latest Arbitron ratings, JP Morgan analysts John Blackledge and Aaron Chew noted that radio’s “average quarter hour persons 25–54” has dropped in 25 of the past 29 books and was up only once in six years. Reviewing fall numbers, they said in-car ratings in this demographic were flat; and with increasing use of mobile technologies and penetration of satellite radio and MP3 devices, “in-car ratings will face greater challenges going forward.”
In the Fall 2006 ratings book, AQH P25-54 ratings at home declined about 4%, while ratings at work were flat, the analysts said. Those ratings at home and at work have declined 2.8% and 2.6%, respectively, annually since 1998 “due to more media choices available for listeners at home and at work.” But Internet radio’s unique visitors are up about 22% year over year, and terrestrial radio operators represented about 37% of unique visitors among key Internet radio operators, up from a 26.3% share a year earlier. The analysts think terrestrial radio’s online investments are “starting to take hold” and said increases in unique visitors over the past year are well above the growth of non-broadcast Internet radio operators. “With the addition of rich content and Web streaming functionality to their Web sites, the operators are attracting more users, driving advertising revenue.” »
fonte: «Radio's Ratings Continue to Fall, While Online Visits Bubble, Radio World, 16/03/07
«A coalition of large technology companies wants to bring high-speed internet access to consumers in a new way: over television airwaves. The six that make up the coalition - Microsoft, Google, Dell, Hewlett-Packard, Intel and Philips - want the Federal Communications Commission to allow idle TV channels, known as white space, to be used to beam the internet into homes and offices, writes the Washington Post. But the FCC must first be convinced that such traffic would not leak outside designated channels and interfere with existing broadcasts. If a device submitted to government labs passes muster, versions could hit stores by early 2009. The new device would create competition among phone and cable companies that deliver high-speed Internet potentially driving prices down and would make it possible to deliver broadband to rural areas. Google joined the coalition because the effort could create opportunities to transmit information over new platforms. It also might strengthen Google's hand should the traditional internet pipelines - big phone and cable companies - start charging internet companies higher prices to move content more swiftly to consumers. »
fonte: «Tech Giants Pushing Use of Airwaves for Internet», MarketingVox, 14/03/07
«"It was a truly simple idea; video on the radio," he said. "What we wanted to do, basically, was rip off the E! network. So we did a live stream from the red carpet at the Grammys, and 140 of our radio stations picked it up. Not that it was revolutionary idea - it's been done on TV - but it blurred the lines on what radio can do, and can deliver."
fonte: radio Ink, What's The Big Idea?, 19/03/07
«Web sites like Pandora.com personalize the music you stream to your desk, while satellite radio offers portable listening but little personalized track choice. Slacker, a music service unveiled this week, hopes to merge the two concepts into something new: personal portable radio for the computer, car and coat pocket. Aimed in name and concept at the music lover who does not want to fritter away hours creating playlists, Slacker offers millions of songs grouped into radio stations by genre or artist. Music can be streamed on the Web using the company’s music player at www.slacker.com. To indicate their preferred types of music and bands, listeners can flag tracks they like and dislike. Slacker has a free version of the service with advertising, as well as an ad-free edition with enhanced personalization for .50 a month. It plans to release hardware offerings later this year. Portable devices will download songs over a Wi-Fi connection and store them for later playback, while car stereo units will receive music over a satellite link. The standard buck-a-song downloads are on the way as well.»
fonte: New York Times, «Now, a Radio Station for (Your Name Here)», J. D. BIERSDORFER, 15/07/07
«Slacker will release an iPod-like device this summer that will let you take your favorites with you — it stores a certain number of songs on the player. In the second half of the year, a car dock will go on sale that will receive updated radio information for the player via satellite signals. Because the online service is free, there are commercials and you can’t skip more than six songs. If you want total control and no ads, that’ll cost .50 a month, well below the .95 Sirius and XM charge. The company says it can afford the price because it isn’t paying for a dedicated satellite, like the other two. We’ve been listening to Slacker pretty much non-stop for the past day and love the song selection, channel choices and customization. The quality is about MP3 level, but much better than FM, and we didn’t experience any skipping or technical snags.
Source: Arbitron, “Radio Today: How Americans Listen to Radio, 2006 Edition,” February 14, 2006
(via The State of the News Media 2007; Percent of the population 12 and older, 1998 - 2005)
The profitability of podcasting heading into 2007 also remains more a matter of potential than reality. In July 2006, Nielsen Analytics released a report called “The Economics of Podcasting,” which reported that 6% of U.S. adults (9 million Web users) had downloaded podcasts in the past 30 days. Almost 4 in 10, or 38%, of those downloaders said they listened to traditional radio less because of podcasting. The most successful podcasts were garnering as many as two million downloads a month. Those numbers make podcasts an attractive outlet to advertisers. With the medium still in its infancy, a few podcasts are already starting to generate income. National Public Radio has been actively attracting sponsors on its podcasts. Will it work? That is less clear. According to the Nielsen survey, 60% of survey respondents said that they “always” fast - forward past commercials»
«Historically, commercial radio programming is safe, inoffensive and mass market to maintain advertisers and to build and maintain the largest possible audience. To programmers this is consistency, whereas to audiences it is predictability. MacFarland [MacFarland, D.T. (1997) Future Radio Programming Strategies. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates] describes this philosophy as the McDonaldization of radio with predictability and familiarity being guiding factors in programming strategy. It could be argued (and evidence of student listening bears this out) that it is predictability in commercial radio that has created the fall in listening by the ‘wirefree’ generation and the movement of audiences (in the UK) from commercial radio to BBC
national radio or to streaming web stations and Podcasts» (Berry, 149)
A culpa é (também) da programação:
«If radio serves to meet basic human needs at a variety of different levels [«All five of Maslow’s basic human needs can be fulfilled through the act of radio listening, the level of need being dependent upon the individual’s hierarchical position at any given moment in time. Radio meets physiological, safety, belongingness and love, esteem and self-actualization needs in a variety of different ways and listeners can engage fulfilment simply by selecting the format type that meets their requirements at any specified period of time»], then it is important that radio provides the necessary variety of programming to fulfil the needs of all listeners.» (Radio Listening as a Function of Basic Human Need: Why Did Maslow Listen To Radio? By Morris W. Shanahan1 , New Zealand Broadcasting School, and Nicholas Brown, The Radio Network, New Zealand , 2002)
«McDonaldization of radio» será uma derivação da expressão McJob, sinónimo de trabalho sem qualificação na indústria do fast food, popularizada no livro «Generation X» de Douglas Coupland, de 1991.
«If we take the classic definitions of radio, as laid out in key texts like Crisell’s Understanding Radio (1986), then we can classify lots of Podcasts as ‘radio’. Yet in some ways to identify Podcasts as ‘radio’ might be ignoring some of the qualities of each medium and perhaps terms like ‘radiogenic’ or ‘radioesque’ are more useful. Black (2001) contributes to this in his discussion of radio streaming on the internet and the debate over what it should be called, asserting that: Listeners have a lot to do with it. A medium’s identity stems in part from how it is received and treated by its users. Listeners may of course be nudged in this or that direction by the industry. But if, for whatever reason, Internet audio is treated as if it were radio, then to some irreducible extent it is radio. (Black, 2001: 398)» (...) If broadcast radio is a ‘push’ medium and internet radio is a ‘pull’ medium, then that raises an interesting debate as to how Podcasting is defined, given that it lies somewhere in between. Whilst the listener selects the content they want to subscribe to, the content arrives by a ‘pushed’ mechanism and the user ultimately decides when it is played (‘pull’). Podcasts are therefore defined as content with the lazy benefits of push media but with all personalization features of pull media. This makes Podcasting ‘personalized media’ or, as BBC ‘In Business’ presenter Peter Day would have it, ‘Radio-Me’, meaning a medium that is more accessible than web radio and more in tune with the needs of some audiences than broadcast services (Day, 2005). Like a lot of radio, Podcasts are consumed alone and, like radio, they tend to be linear in their nature in that the content is heard as though it were live but with the added convenience of being able to pause or rewind if desired. It is this feature that led many industry observers to call it ‘TiVo for Radio’ (Day, 2005).» (Berry, 155-156)
«Podcast pioneers Curry and Winer disagree about what Podcasting will do to radio. Curry feels its effect will be profound whilst Winer is more sceptical, arguing in his weblog: It’ll become radio and vice versa. Airwaves are just another method of distribution . . . What will change is who’s talking and who’s listening. Now the conversation will flow in all directions, with broadcasters listening to people they used to think of as ‘audience’. Blogs changed the architecture of written-word-journalism in the same way. (Winer, 2004)» (Berry, 158)
«The next step will be content designed and delivered to mobile phones, hand-held personal devices (PDAs), games consoles or connected media players, potentially using the – newer – smaller and higher quality MP4 or AAC format (the format used in iPod offering improved quality over MP3). The current ‘next generation’ or ‘3G’ mobile phones do offer the capacity to access the web with speeds capable of sustaining audio streaming, and downloadable applications already exist to run Podcasting clients on ‘smartphones’. This could be a step forward, bypassing the computer altogether andcapturing content on the playback device. (...) It is likely that with the increased choice, digital content (whether via DAB, satellite, webcasting or Podcasting) that is ‘in tune’ with audiences, using formats and styles other than mainstream music, will develop. Linked to this, a role for speech-led content may develop (Berry, 2004).» (Berry, 157-158)
«The shared experience of live radio (social listening at breakfast time, large sporting events and so on) should secure a place for broadcast radio in the digital future. However, in the future live broadcasters will need to become more interactive, more drawn to speech-driven or excitement-driven formats, offering content not available on other platforms. (...) Whilst live broadcasting could remain central for some listeners they will also have continual opportunities to catch up with missed features via delivered audio content. In the future there will still be a role for (live) broadcast radio but as a medium it needs to consolidate and rediscover its strengths and its ‘liveness’. On a professional level, producers will deploy ‘Long Tail’ principles and offer ‘sidechannels’ (specialized audio downloads) to cater for spin-off niches. More non-broadcast businesses will use audio on the new platform to connect with their customers, whether they are students or airline passengers. The ability of grassroots Podcasters to compete on a level playing field with big business is refreshing and means that more than ever it is content that is important rather than brand, heritage or frequency position. That’s the lesson, the revolution the radio industry needs to take away from Podcasting. The iPod has not killed the radio star (yet) but radio may require some retuning» (Berry, 159)
Será através da rádio de palavra que melhor se concretizará a necessidade de auto-actualização, enunciada por Maslow [Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and Personality(2nd ed.). New York: Harper and Row]: «The desire to learn is one of the central elements in Maslow’s final level of basic human need. Acquisition of knowledge for knowledge sake meets the criteria for self-actualization. It is here that radio continues to excel. The plethora of radio formats in today’s media environment provides listeners with a variety of information options, from stations that provide; all news, all sport, all weather, current affairs, feature programs, a wide variety of talk-based elements and everything in between. This variety is coupled with radio’s innate advantages of accessibility, immediacy and localism (when satisfying) to provide profuse opportunities for listeners to access whatever information deemed desirable. The continued high listenership to talk-based formats suggests this need is being met at a number of different levels» (Radio Listening as a Function of Basic Human Need: Why Did Maslow Listen To Radio? By Morris W. Shanahan1 , New Zealand Broadcasting School, and Nicholas Brown, The Radio Network, New Zealand , 2002)
Do livro de 2000 de David Hendy (e a demonstrar que quando se fala do futuro - e do mesmo do presente - as analises devem ser muito cuidadosas):
«(...) not only is the fall in radio use among the young very small, but greater use of the Internet may itself help cushion any future drop. Research on the use of the Internet in British homes in 1999, for instance, suggested at while more than a third of people spend less time watching television and a quarter spend less time reading magazines since they are gone 'online', a quarter claim to spend more time listening the radio (The Times 26 February 1999). In a similar survey in he USA, radio listening was actually down slightly in households which were online, though television watching was hit more severely (Arbitron 1999). Radio, in other words, is the medium which is most complementary to one of the fastest-growing leisure activities, namely surfing the net. This should not, of course, be surprising given radio's use as a secondary medium, listened to in the background, and precisely because it is eminently 'consumable' while doing other things. (Hendy, 2000: 128)
«Radio, in other words, is being used by teenagers as an escape route from family life and into what is described as the 'privatism' being sought for at a particular moment in their psychological and social development. This chimes with the observation by Barnett and Morrison that for all of us: «Television has become the 'social' medium, allowing the family to share a leisure activity in its own living room; radio, on the other hand, has become 'asocial' - a solo medium which is isolationist rather than communal. (1989: I). There are two important caveats to this casting of radio listening as somehow more 'private' or 'asocial' than watching television: first, it underplays the changing relationship between the way we use various media in the home, and secondly, it underplays the sociable dimensions of radio listening itself... First, then, the question of competing media in the home. In the years since Barnett and Morrison made their observation the number of television sets per household has risen considerably throughout the western world. Specifically, many teenagers are now just as likely to have a TV set in their bedrooms as a radio. (...) At the same time teenagers are no longer quite so dependent as they once were on the transistor radio as their means of withdrawal from the family: the better off among them are now likely to have their own CD players, computer games, even Internet access. These offer entry to a whole range of 'asocial' activities other than radio, and their presence in households appears to be making teenagers more discriminating - sceptical even - about the radio output on offer (Carroll et al. 1993)» (Hendy, 200: 127-1289)
Duas ideias essenciais neste contexto: a ligação à tecnologia e a capacidade de fazer diversas coisas ao mesmo tempo.
«(...) olhem para eles agora: de umbigo ao léu nos cinco festivais de Verão, a encomendar malas de Hong Kong com o cartão de crédito dos pais, 228 amigos no Hi5 (e a contagem continua) do Texas ao Perú, 50 canais na TV em vez de dois, zap-zap, qual zip-zip qual quê.
fonte: «17 anos, a melhor juventude... lol», Kathleen Gomes, Público/P2, 5/03/07, pág. 4-7
«The use of iPods, portable podcasting, satellite signals, digital HD radio, Internet streaming, and even phones as music-listening devices all grew. There were further signs that the new technologies were beginning to have an impact on traditional radio, from audience behavior and economics to transforming the ownership and strategy of the industry and altering the projections for the future. For now, the size of traditional radio’s audience remains fairly stable. But the amount of time people spend with it is beginning to ebb. (...) The only notion that seems clear is that the first major new communication technology of the 20th century — radio — is changing rapidly and appears likely to survive the early years of the21 st. The form or forms the medium will take, however, are still shifting.»
«If news continues to be such a big part of traditional commercial radio’s appeal, does it hold the same sway in the new audio formats? That is harder to answer. For now, the data on newer audio formats — satellite radio, Internet radio and podcasts — do not specify the type of content people tune in to. The total number of people and the time they spend listening to news is expected to become measurable with Arbitron’s Portable People Meter starting in 2007. But a survey released by the Pew Center for the People and the Press does provide some insight into how many people are using the new audio devices to access news content, and how frequently. The data suggest that the devices are not being widely used for consumption of news, not yet anyway. Only 12% of the Internet population has ever downloaded any kind of podcast on an MP3 player, and only 2%9 has done it for a news podcast, according to Pew data.
News on Mobile Devices
Source: Pew Research Center for the People and the Press’ biennial consumption survey, “Online Papers Modestly Boost Newspaper Readership,” July 30, 2006
But of MP3/iPod owners (25.5% of the population), 8% say they download news podcasts to their MP3 players.10 Though that is a small percentage, Pew survey data show that about a quarter of the news podcast downloaders report doing so daily»
«For now, the new digital forms of audio are not only expanding the potential for listening beyond that of traditional radio, they are also attracting a different audience. Some of these differences are to be expected, but others are more surprising and subtle. To begin with, contrary to popular conception, teenagers are not necessarily the most avid consumers of new technology, at least not with new audio devices. Young adults, for instance, those between age 18 and 34, are the most likely to listen to Internet radio. Nearly 1 in 5 does so at least once a week, compared with closer to 1 in 10 of 12-to-17-year-olds.35 Teenagers, though, are more likely to listen to podcasts — 21% of people under 18 report doing so — but listening to podcasts is equally as popular with 35-to-44-year-olds, followed closely by people 25 to 34, at 20%, and 45 to 54, at 17%.36 The listening device that reigns supreme with youth is the MP3 player. A majority of U.S. teenagers (51%) now report that they own an iPod or some other brand of portable digital music player, according to Arbitron.37
Of the new audio formats, satellite radio attracts the “oldest” crowd, though it isn’t really old at all: those between 35 and 44 are most likely to listen to satellite radio. Of those surveyed in that age group, 24% said they listened to satellite radio, followed by 20% in the 25-to-34 age range and only 6% of those 18 to 24.38
A Sony, no Japão, acaba de lançar um receptor de televisão e rádio. Para além da questão da convergência (sempre que a rádio consegue convergir com plataformas tecnologicamente mais evoluídas é bom), poderá ser este um sinal dos novos tempos? da rádio com imagem?
«Mobile Radio: Finally, if one can put radio content on an iPod, one can also download it onto other digital devices, including cell phones and PDA’s like BlackBerries and Palm Pilots. In September of 2006, Clear Channel announced its plan to stream radio content to cell phones with service provided by Cingular Wireless. The mobile radio program began streaming content out of New York’s station WHTZ-FM Z100, and includes live radio and news features, as well as on-demand podcasts. The service is called Z100 Mobile, and requires a subscription fee of .99 a month. Subscribers to the service can also request songs and locate the titles and artists of recently played songs via text messages on their cell phones. Clear Channel reported in its September press release that it expected to expand the service to 100 stations by the end of 2007» (the state of the news media 2007)
Não há uma uniformização das classificações etárias.
Uma é esta: Kids - 8-12 anos; tweens: 9-14; teen(ager)s: 12-17
Outra (usada no State of the News Media 2007): teenagers: 12-17; young adults: 18-34
Outra (arbitron): kids (6-8) e tweens (9-11).
É público que BBC, NPR e outras rádios de serviço público são as menos receosas relativamente ao podcasting e às novas mudanças que a rádio está a sofrer.
De acordo com a edição de 2007 do State of the News Media, a rádio do Washington Post, WTOP, estará ainda mais à frente:
«Washington-based WTOP represents an entirely different look at radio online, one which is simultaneously local and national in scope. The homepage features an obvious lead story; an invitation to visitors to listen to WTOP radio news; weather and traffic information for the day; and a prominently featured local news section. Advertisements also have a heavy presence. WTOP.com ranks in the top tier for offering customizable options. Users can subscribe to both RSS feeds and podcasts, and its RSS feeds are relatively varied (totaling 12 different feeds, all of which are different categories of news). WTOP also goes further than NPR in providing on-demand listening options: visitors can sign up for content delivery (headlines, weather, traffic and breaking news) to their mobile phones. WTOP.com is still largely about narrative text (it makes up close to three-quarters of the content with still photos the second-most common form). Still, it did make some effort at multimedia forms (falling in the mid-level range of all sites studied) with some presence of video stories, slideshows, interactive graphics and yes, live streaming audio. Listening makes up only a small though prominent part of the Web site’s homepage with a section called “ Audio Center” that is devoted to live streaming of the WTOP radio station content.The site puts less emphasis on its own original branded content, relying mostly on the A.P. The heavy use on wires reflects the larger reality of radio today — even in Washington, D.C., national and international news comes heavily from sources other than the station itself. And even for local stories, only some had WTOP staff bylines; most came from the A.P., along with a few contributions from the Washington Post. Economically, WTOP seems to emphasize revenue streams from its Web site, as opposed to simply leaning on its radio station for cash-flow. It averaged close to 20 different ads on its home page, only one of which was self-promotional. Ad eyeballs, it seems, are the way users pay for use of the site. All the content is free and there no registration is necessary»
«O passado foi embora naquela direção. Quando confrontados com uma situação inteiramente nova, tendemos a ligar-nos aos objetos, ao sabor do passado mais recente. Olhamos o presente através de um espelho retrovisor. Caminhamos de costas em direção ao futuro". (McLuhan, s/d: 54 in O tambor tribal de McLuhan, Nélia Del Bianco, Teorias do Rádio, Meditsch org, 2005, pág 160)
«McLuhan entendia que todo meio novo trata, num primeiro momento, de integrar os meios precedentes e se referir a eles. O termo hibridização foi cunhado na década de 60 para caracterizar as mudanças provocadas pela grande penetrabilidade da televisão. Trinta anos depois, permanece atual e oferece uma oportunidade especiamente favorável à observaçao dos componentes e propriedades estruturais da dinâmica do processo em curso. (...) Por esse conceito é possível entender hoje que as mutações emergentes por hibridização desencadeiam um realinhamento do sistema de comunicação, abrindo caminho para a convergência de processos e práticas. É nesse ambiente de modificações e reciclagens, onde uma forma não subsiste sem a outra, é que estão sendo moldadas na contemporaneidade as bases do processo de convergência ou integração entre novos e velhos meios» (Nélia Del Bianco, in Teorias do Rádio, 2005: 160-1)
«(...) Las emisoras de radio comerciales estadounidenses han vislumbrado el futuro, y está, entre otras cosas, en el vídeo. Por ello, el estereotipo de locutor de voz aterciopelada como Stryker, desplomado en la silla del estudio y desmelenado, tal vez cambie radicalmente. (...) Por todo el país, las emisoras de radio incluyen vídeos en sus ciberpáginas, desde una simple cámara en la cabina de emisión para cubrir exclusivamente acontecimientos como la Super Bowl hasta videoclips, noticias y actuaciones musicales sólo para Internet. "Ahora es un medio visual", opina Dianna Jason, directora general de mercadotecnia y promociones en Power 106, una emisora de hiphop de Los Ángeles. Si bien antes se decía que el vídeo había matado a la estrella de la radio según la canción de Buggles, cuyo vídeo fue el primero emitido en MTV en 1981? ahora se presenta como inesperado salvador de un sector que afronta múltiples retos. En la era de YouTube, podría parecer que lo único notable a este respecto es que la radio haya sido inusualmente lenta en adoptar la era interactiva. Pero ahora muchas de las principales empresas radiofónicas intentan mantener su estatus cuando la atención del oyente se dispersa en muchas direcciones: i-Pods, móviles, radio por satélite y diversas ofertas de emisión y descarga de música por empresas como Yahoo y AOL. "Muchas de nuestras emisoras empiezan a introducir el vídeo y a generar nuevas corrientes de ingresos", comenta Joel Hollander, director ejecutivo de CBS Radio, la segunda empresa radiofónica de EE UU, después de Clear Channel Communications. "Espero que el vídeo ayude a la estrella de la radio. A lo mejor la radio salva a la estrella del vídeo". Más del 90% de los estadounidenses siguen escuchando la radio tradicional. Pero la cantidad de tiempo que permanecen sintonizados a lo largo de la semana se redujo 14 horas a lo largo de la pasada década, según los cálculos de Arbritron. Los ingresos del sector se han estancado, y el índice Bloomberg de acciones radiofónicas caía un 40% en los pasados tres años. Ahora el vídeo sólo aporta una diminuta fracción de los 16.000 millones de euros que la radio genera en publicidad. Pero podría representar la tan necesitada nueva fuente de crecimiento en un mercado de vídeo en Internet en rápida expansión, en el que todos, desde Google hasta los periódicos, pasando por las televisiones, quieren estar. Ejecutivos y figuras de la radio consideran que sus vídeos serán distintos porque aprovechan la ventaja tradicional del medio al usar personajes en directo y acontecimientos locales para captar oyentes. Y la radio y el vídeo encajan mejor de lo esperado. En su libro Understanding media, el teórico cultural Marshall McLuhan escribe que “el efecto de la radio es visual”.Siguiendo la clave de You-Tube y el auge de los vídeos caseros, el objetivo no es ofrecer un producto pulido, de calidad televisiva. Una emisora de rock, 94.7 FM de Portland, Oregón, empezó el año pasado la serie Vídeos de contrabando, en la que prestan a un oyente una cámara de vídeo para que grabe para la ciberpágina un clip de la actuación de un grupo nuevo. “A veces es un poco tosco, pero es lo que queremos”, comenta Mark Hamilton, director de la cadena, perteneciente a Entercom Communications. “No queremos que sea perfecto”. Los productores de Adam Carolla, el locutor matutino de Los Ángeles cuyo programa se difunde en muchas emisoras de CBS Radio, graban con regularidad vídeos reales de Carolla y algún invitado para colgarlos en Internet. Clear Channel, cuya sección de Internet está dirigida por Evan Harrison, vicepresidente ejecutivo, ofrece una elaborada programación en vídeo en las ciberpáginas de sus 1.200 emisoras. 6.000 vídeos musicales están disponibles para su descarga, pero también ha venido produciendo contenido visual original que las distintas emisoras pueden presentar en sus páginas y los dj, promocionar en antena. Por ahora, las nuevas empresas de vídeo nacidas de la radio apenas si empiezan a generar ingresos. Los directivos del sector resaltan que, por el momento, sus programas de vídeo podrían considerarse experimentales y sólo una faceta ?junto con los blogs y los archivos de sonido por suscripción y el reciente servicio denominado Radio HD? de cómo se está adaptando el sector. (...)»
fonte: «La radio (visual) se pasa a Internet», El Pais, RICHARD SIKLOS (NYTimes) - New York - 10/03/2007
«En épocas de home theater, el audio adquiere una relevancia especial. Según López, esta tendencia se encuentra transformando a Pinnacle: "Se está abriendo un nuevo mercado porque cada vez más el audio y el video corren juntos", dijo. "Antes, al editar video, el audio no importaba si estaba en alta calidad o en baja. Lo importante era la imagen. Hoy la mentalidad de la gente está cambiando, y el usuario está más exigente, quiere buen audio y video, y ya no alcanza con que la imagen sola esté bien. Por eso Pinnacle se está asociando con varias empresas que están en el entorno de la edición del audio, lo que le permite mejorar la calidad de sonido ambiente, de audio en micrófonos, etc."»
fonte: «¿Qué es una radio wireless? 12/03/07, Canal Ar
(em vez de um modulador/adaptador de FM, que se liga ao LAD, este telemóvel já emite FM para o receptor do carro - ou de casa:«(...) along comes LG, the Korean giant that's making news in a variety of consumer electronics markets, with its 550 FUSIC phone. This is a fully featured cell phone that offers all the stuff to which we've become accustomed, plus you can use it as your own private radio station. It does this via a low-powered FM transmitter that sends signals from the phone to your car (or home) FM tuner, eliminating the need for a wireless connection between the devices. This makes it attractive to the millions of people who don't have iPod input jacks in their vehicles. It isn't a new concept, but this is the first time I've seen it applied to a cell phone; the other devices I've seen that transmit your tunes via FM are standalone device such as the AudioBug. The feature makes the FUSIC perfect for use in my personal cars, which are so old they didn't even come with CD players - but which do have tuners.
I downloaded a few tunes from Bell and spewed them through the ether to the stereos of a variety of cars I was driving. You can choose and set the frequency you use, which is handy since it's best to find a frequency that isn't already saddled with some lame local radio station's signal. In my area, 107.9 worked well. In practice, the FM transmitter also worked well, but its performance depended a great deal upon the vehicle I was in. This is because the signal is actually being transmitted from the phone to the car radio through the car's radio antenna - and where the antenna is located on the vehicle can have an effect. Remember, the signal isn't just going a couple of feet from phone to radio - it's going outside the car to the antenna, and then back in again to the tuner. For example, my old Infiniti Q45 has the antenna on its right rear corner and during my wintry test it was frozen with only about a third of its length extended. This led to a lot of problems with interference. On the other hand, when I enclosed the FUSIC into the cubbyhole at the top of the 2007 Nissan Sentra's dashboard, it worked like a hot darn!»
fonte: «Make Your Own Radio Station With LG's 550 FUSIC Phone/Music Player», The Post Chronicle, By Jim Bray, Mar 10, 2007
«What Podcasting offers is a classic ‘horizontal’ media form: producers are consumers and consumers become producers and engage in conversations with each other. At a grassroots level there is no sense of a hierarchical approach, with Podcasters supporting each other, promoting the work of others and explaining how they do what they do. Whilst this is true of radio on the internet as a whole it is especially the case with Podcasting because the means to create are as accessible as the means to consume.»
«It is clear that in the Podcast world it is content that is king, with listeners choosing material that appeals to them, rather than selecting radio stations or formats as has been the case in traditional commercial radio models» (berry, 148)
«Writing in the First Monday online journal a group from the MBA programme at Indiana State University report that: ‘In addition to providing greater flexibility in when audio programming is listened to, Podcasting invariably also offers listeners an escape from the advertising that plagues traditional radio broadcasting’
(Crofts et al., 2005)»
«The development of downloads of audio content in MP3 formats may be seen as the web’s equivalent of the cassette recorder or the portable radio. Both changed the way listeners consume radio. The MP3 player, like the transistor, frees the listener from a large box wired to the wall and, like the cassette recorder, it allows programmes to be time-shifted. This demonstrates the virus-like nature of radio as a medium. Radio has found its way into all parts of homes and outdoors, into transport systems, into the internet and now into our MP3 players, an environment which is entirely suitable for radiogenic content. Like a virus, radio is also very resilient, fighting off attacks from television, compact disc and the increasingly visual world we live in. So for radiogenic content to find its way through the web to portable audio devices should not come as much of a surprise. After all, many people have taped radio programmes at home to listen to at a later point – even if it was just the weekly Top 40 countdown»
«The other big audience challenge is youth. Most of my generation grew up with radio. Memories of that first car, that first cigarette, that first pint of heavy, are for many of us inextricably bound up with particular pieces of music, particular radio programmes or DJs. Today, while television can still capture children up to their early teens and the challenge is simply getting them back in their twenties, for radio, is there a generation growing up who are simply not introduced to the habit and may thus not get the point as they mature. Two thirds of today’s young mobile users have their phones on and within easy reach for between 21 and 24 hours a day. I earnestly hope that radio- possibly using the mobile as delivery medium - can capture at least some of that time.»
fonte: The Radio Festival - Certainty or Security? The Path to Digital, Stephen A Carter, Chief Executive, Ofcom, 4/07/05
«(...) Anyhow, the debate has moved on and the new mantra is that radio journalists don't do video. Apparently, it's one thing to encroach on the territory of print journalists by producing text for the website, but they draw the line at video. That's TV, they claim. Sadly, they still haven't grasped multimedia and don't understand convergence. Web video is not television - the grammar is completely different. But don't take my word for it, check out the video segments that TV news stations are shovelling onto the Web - a lot of it just doesn't work. But if done properly, online video can target niche groups and exploit the long-tail in ways that are impossible for traditional broadcast media. There is a smilar relationship between podcasting and traditional radio.
(...)BBC Five Live is rising to the challenge by providing images to accompany many of its sporting programmes. I have heard that they are turning Mark Kermode's film reviews into video podcasts. No doubt, some of my colleagues will accuse Radio Five Live of making "cheap television." Pay no attention: for the most part, they are the same people who predicted no-one would ever read a news article online. »
(fonte: Multimedia meets radio, «Why video is a must for radio stations», 19/03/07)
«Os jovens são grandes consumidores deste meio, sendo no grupo etário dos 25 aos 34 anos que se observa maior audiência de rádio. Pelo contrário, nos mais idosos observam-se taxas inferiores à média.»
Se o standard escolhido para a tv portátil for o DVB-H (da Nokia) isso será mau para quem tem DAB. Por causa da falta de convergência. «For a radio broadcaster, DVB-H is bad news: because it’s not backwards compatible with anything, so you’ll have more transmission costs to get onto this new platform. For a manufacturer or network provider, it’s not particularly good news either: a brand new network will have to be built, and in many cases (the UK included) the frequencies won’t become free for another few years. And for the consumer, it’s also bad news: my device will only pick up those broadcasters who’ve elected to spend money to broadcast on this new network.»
Já se for o DMB... «DMB is based on DAB technology - so, for a radio broadcaster, DMB is good news: because it’s backwards compatible with DAB Digital Radio. That iRiver device picked up Das Erste, but also picks up nearly twenty different digital radio stations. For a manufacturer or network provider, that’s also good news: because the radio companies have already paid to build a DAB network, and the frequencies are already internationally allocated. And for the consumer, that’s also good news: a consumer that thrives on content and choice (and all consumers do, no matter what Mark Ramsey says) will get the content they already know and love with DAB Digital Radio, as well as additional multimedia content with DMB television services»
É a velha questão da convergência: «DMB is the only way for them to deliver broadcast television. Because it can deliver radio as well. The choice of mobile TV technology really does matter for radio broadcasters. If the world chooses DMB, any DAB radio broadcaster will be available on millions of new devices at no extra cost. If the world chooses DVB-H, we won’t be. It’s time to get involved.»
fonte: «Why radio should care about mobile Tv», James Cridland, 18/03/07
«O rádio digital não será mais o que é hoje, ou seja, um aparelhinho pra gente apenas ouvir. Ele poderá ter um pequeno display, onde poderemos ver o nome da música e do intérprete (convenhamos: Isso sempre fez falta. Quantas músicas bonitas, alegres ou tristes eu ouvi, e queria saber o nome da música ou do intérprete mas não deram, passou e nunca mais eu soube…). Bem, esse display poderá ser um pouco mais requintado e poderemos ver então a capa do CD (ops! quase digo “capa do disco”…) ou o que seria melhor: a cara do artista. Depois, na hora do noticiário, poderemos ver as fotos das notícias, como se fosse no jornal. Ou, então, até pequenos segmentos de vídeo, em baixa resolução, como, por exemplo, o repeteco do gol do timão. Goooooooooolllllll !!!!
Ei, eu disse “vídeo”? Mas eu não estava falando sobre rádio (digital)?
Mas a TV (digital) vai continuar sendo TV, com som e imagem. E, claro, com funções interativas. Como na Internet? Talvez sim, talvez não, talvez diferente. E imagem de alta definição e som envolvente (surround). Ou então uma imagem mais normal, mas num aparelhinho que vai parecer um livro – você carrega pra lá e pra cá, pára num canto para tomar um lanche, abre o tal “livro”, e pronto: começa a assistir o seu programa favorito, seja ele um noticiário ou o capítulo de hoje da novela. Bacana. E também vai ter uns receptores ainda menores, que você vai poder carregar no bolso – seja para assistir programas numa pequena tela que não chega a dez centímetros de tamanho, seja apenas para ouvir o som, enquanto espera alguma coisa. Sim senhor! TV sem imagem, apenas som… Ei, mas não estávamos falando sobre TV… digital?
Onde termina uma coisa e começa a outra? É, estamos vivendo num mundo em que velhos conceitos não valem mais. Antigamente as coisas eram mais simples. Pão pão, queijo queijo, já dizia o ditado. Eram homens de um lado e mulheres de outro. Hoje em dia as coisas estão mais difusas, vocês entendem, não é?
Vejam por exemplo a proposta do DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting), na Alemanha. Originalmente concebido para ser um rádio digital (ou seja, basicamente áudio), agora estão começando a transmitir jornais para serem lidos no receptor. Proposta parecida ao do DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting), na Coréia: em vez de áudio, o que se transmite são programas multimídia, de video clips a joguinhos eletrônicos. E o que dizer do DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting for Handheld), onde o receptor é mais parecido com um pequeno computador de mão? Mais ou menos como os tais terminais de telefonia celular 3G. Ei, mas não estávamos falando de rádio, quero dizer, de televisão digital? Ah, sei lá. Esse mundo está cada vez mais confuso.»
fonte: Takashi Tome, «TV Digital, Rádio Digital e outras esquisitices no ar». 14/03/07
«HANNOVER - Quem precisa ouvir notícias de rádio e TV em línguas desconhecidas pode ver a luz no fim do túnel em pouco tempo. A empresa austríaca SAIL LABs, especializada em inteligência artificial e linguagem, criou um software, o ROSIDS (Rapid Open Source Intelligence Deployment System), que ataca o problema de frente. O ROSIDS produz legendas tanto de rádio e TV quanto de dados da internet através de um sistema de reconhecimento automático da fala. O que se diz é transcrito na linguagem de preferência em tempo real. O programa foi premiado na CeBIT, feira de tecnologia da Alemanha. A qualidade da tradução ainda não foi avaliada por INFO.»
fonte: «Software traduz rádio e TV com legenda no ato», Info on line, Quarta-feira, 21 de março de 2007
«The Sagem My Dual Radio 700 is a multimode radio which wants to be loved by everyone. You want Internet radio? You got it, via WiFi or Ethernet. You want FM sounds? Check, complete with RDS. MP3 player, yep via a USB port. Alarm clock? All right already, so you’ve got two programmable alarms. Throw in a big LCD screen, a remote control and two speakers – no we can’t see the other one either – and you’ve got yourself a real jack of all le trades. Apparently the price should not exceed €150.00 when it arrives next month.» («Sagem My Dual Radio 700 - Internet radio a la terrestrial», The Red Ferret Journal, 21/03/07)
e o primeiro receptor portátil de internet?
«Australian company Torian is now shipping its Infusion, which it claims is the world's first mobile Internet radio, or Wi-Fi radio. The radio, which also doubles as an MP3 player, debuted at the CeBIT conference in Germany this week. [Video: Internet radio goes mobile] If you're a real sports fan or someone who likes to listen to music from around the globe, Infusion kind of makes sense. I say kind of because while it will give you access to just about every Web radio station or Web sports broadcasts, it requires you to be in range of a Wi-Fi hot spot. If, however, you're a listener who is satisfied with the pop radio stations, then buy yourself a portable radio or continue using your iPod. The company is also producing what it calls an Internet radio module that third party manufacturers can adapt to other devices like a car radio -- perhaps another nail in the coffin of satellite radio -- or your home hi-fi system. Other features of Infusion include 16 presets of your choice, MP3 player with five hours of playback, and 4GB of expandable memory plus an SD card slot, FM radio receiver, and headphones. The price is expected to be about 0» (fonte: March 21, 2007, «Infusion: World's first portable Internet radio, infoworld.com)
em vez de comprar o pacote das «cem» rádios, a Sirius vai permitir comprar canal a canal, produto a produto.
«Satellite radio customers will get the option to pay a lower price for just the channels they want if the industry’s two big providers are allowed to merge (...). An a la carte option would allow customers to pay only for the channels they want to receive. Combined, Sirius and XM currently offer more than 300 channels of programming. But some of those stations are identical and many more feature similar formats and genres. “Customers may elect to receive fewer channels at a monthly price lower than .95; substantially similar programming at the existing .95 price; or more channels, including some of the ’best of both’ networks, at a modest premium to the cost of one service,” Sirius said in the Securities and Exchange Commission document.»
fonte: «Sirius proposes a la carte radio programming», March 21, 2007, By JEREMY HERRON, ASSOCIATED PRESS BUSINESS WRITER, Detroit Free Press
«The results of a new web poll survey, conducted by Rock radio consultants Jacobs Media, consisting of over 25,000 respondents from 69 Rock-formatted stations from all over the U.S., shows that satellite radio subscribership has not changed since last year’s survey, despite extensive marketing throughout 2006. "While satellite radio continues to be a hot topic of conversation, growth for both XM and Sirius appears to have greatly slowed," Jacobs Media President Fred Jacobs comments. "Our findings also show that potential interest among non-subscribers has also diminished from our survey last year." From the 2006 to 2007 studies, the numbers are essentially unchanged – about 12% of Rockers subscribe to XM, Sirius, or both services. Men and 30-39 year-olds are most apt to be satellite radio customers.Among those who have not bought either service, only 9% say they are very likely to subscribe to XM or Sirius, with the latter having a slight edge. This is down from 12% in the 2006 study.»
fonte: «AMONG ROCKERS, SATELLITE RADIO GROWTH HAS STALLED», Jacobsmedia.com, 20/03/07
«Of the estimated 30 million users of wireless access technology in the U.S., 75% or 23 million have wireless accessed Internet radio. In fact, 48% of those accessing the Internet via wireless technology seek out Internet radio. The number of Internet radio listeners accessing wirelessly will grow to 77 million by 2010 as wireless technology penetrates the average U.S. lifestyle. (...) The more time spent using wireless technology to access the Internet, the less time spent with traditional AM/FM radio. (...). In 2006, the average weekly time spent using Wireless connectivity to access the Internet rose to fifteen-hours-forty-five minutes. Sample:2200 Persons 15+. Margin of error: +/- 2.1%; Interviews conducted January 2 - March 1, 2007»
fonte: «The Bridge Ratings Report - The Impact of Wireless Internet , 21/03/07
«44% of the consumers under 24 years of age that we interviewed consider the Internet to be the primary way to listen to music. That number falls to 39% of those over 24 and only 18% of those over 35. The greatest potential for growth in this area comes from this over 35 group where 22% believe that the Internet will become their primary way to listen to music in the future.
«(...) from Bridge Ratings: '48% of those accessing the Internet via wireless technology seek out Internet radio. The number of Internet radio listeners accessing wirelessly will grow to 77 million by 2010 as wireless technology penetrates the average U.S. lifestyle.' "Wireless" Internet radio is another name for...radio. "Wireless technology" represents not only the WiFi connection on your PC but also - increasingly - your mobile phone, your sixth-generation iPod (just wait), even your portable satellite radio - if it's equipped with WiFi. Bridge is projecting that almost 80 million folks will get at least some of their "radio" need satisfied by "radio-like" content coming to them across numerous distribution channels which are primarily modified versions of the very items they carry today: Your PC, your mobile phone, your WiPod, your XM/Sirius Net Radio - even your new Internet-equipped car "radio."» (Mark Ramsey, Hear2.0, 22/03/07, «The coming wireless Internet radio boom»)
«Abril deverá marcar o início da comercialização da Apple TV no mercado Europeu, incluindo Portugal, depois de ontem ter iniciado a venda nos Estados Unidos, segundo a Lusa.
fonte: «Apple TV chega em Abril» Meios e Publicidade, 23/03/07
«The future is unclear, but the changes need to be charted as they unfold» (Tacchi, 2000: 292).
- Radio is a powerful vehicle for reaching kids and tweens. Radio reaches 90 percent of children each week, and they spend eight to nine hours per week with radio.
- Kids and tweens find radio commercials informative and entertaining. Spot load or annoying commercials aren’t an issue with this group.
- Kids and tweens respond to commercials. They are interested in the products and services being advertisedand frequently request that Mom or Dad make purchases on their behalf.
- Kids and tweens are very involved with radio. They listen with their friends, attend events, play contests and seek out music on the Internet.
- Radio listening fits in with children’s lifestyles. They get ready for school with the radio and go right back to radio when the school day is over. Nights and weekends also deliver strong numbers for children.
- As Children Grow, So Does Their Time Spent with Radio
(Kids 6/8; tweens: 9/11;
(«How Kids and tweens use and respond to radio»; Arbitron, Inverno 2000; Survey Dates: 2/3/00 - 3/29/00; In-Tab: New York 476, Los Angeles 537, Minneapolis-St. Paul 328. (...) During the placement call there was an initial screening question as to whether any children 6-11 lived in the household. If yes, the interviewers would proceed with a standard placement interview; if no, a thank-you and good-bye; Methodology for Callback Study: In-Tab: 358, Survey Dates: 6/23/00 - 7/12/00 Survey Methodology: The sample for the Children’s Measurement; Callback Study was drawn from the Winter 2000 Arbitron Kids’ and Tweens’ Listening Study. All in-tab households from New York, Los Angeles and Minneapolis were selected for recall)
Excerto do estudo «How Kids and tweens use and respond to radio»; Arbitron, Inverno 2000:
«How do kids and tweens find out about new songs or groups?
«O investimento publicitário em internet deverá crescer 50% em 2006. No ano passado o valor foi de 35% e para 2007 esperam-se novamente numeros na ordem dos 50%. (...) a internet é o único meio que está a crescer muito acima da média. Segundo dados da Omnicom Media Group, a internet vai crescer 50% no ano de 2006 em relação aos resultados de 2005, período onde já havia registado um acréscimo na captação de investimento na ordem dos 35%. Os números da Carat são ainda mais optimistas, já que a agência de meios aponta para este ano um acelerar na ordem dos 54% enquanto que para 2007 prevê que o meio deve crescer 50%» (SObe, sobe, internet sobe», Meios e Publicidade, Hugo Real, 12/01/07, pag 14)
(a rádio acentuará a tendência de queda - a preços reais - de menos 4% em 2004/2005 para menos 8% em 2005/2006; a maior queda comparativa entre meios)
«Não contente em apenas escutar as músicas de seu iPod, uma adolescente de São Francisco, nos Estados Unidos, inventou um aparelho que permite que o tocador digital funcione como uma estação de rádio, transmitindo músicas para outros tocadores que estão por perto. O sistema, chamado de NoeStringsAttached, faz com que iPods e outros aparelhos semelhantes possam transmitir e receber músicas utilizando ondas de rádio FM, a uma distância de até 4,5 metros.
fonte: «Aparelho faz comunicação de iPods via rádio», 27/03/2007, G1, Globo
Da Vodafone Portugal:
«Lisboa, 27 de Março de 2007 – No seguimento da sua estratégia de associação aos maiores acontecimentos de música em Portugal, a Vodafone pretende reforçar a sua ligação à música através do desenvolvimento de um projecto constituído por vários eventos musicais inovadores e diferenciadores, criados e produzidos pela Vodafone Portugal e ligados, fundamentalmente, à música feita por bandas portuguesas. Denominado Vodafone Música, o projecto tem como missão sintonizar os amantes de música com os artistas nacionais. A Vodafone pretende levar os artistas portugueses ao grande público, proporcionando uma maior ligação à marca através da promoção de experiências musicais inovadoras e diferenciadoras. Em Abril, Maio e Agosto, a música sai à rua com os Concertos Flash Vodafone que levarão 6 artistas nacionais (Fonzie, Mesa, Fingertips, Loto, Mundo Secreto e Expensive Soul) a 6 cidades do país (Aveiro, Porto, Évora, Braga, Faro e Portimão). Toda a acção é realizada num único dia, diferente para cada um dos locais, numa operação “flash”, que visa partilhar a música nacional com a população de cada cidade. Em Julho, a Vodafone House Party oferece um programa inesquecível: uma festa única numa casa fantástica com um concerto ao vivo dos Blasted Mechanism. Os vencedores de um passatempo ganham a oportunidade de serem os reis de uma estrondosa festa, especialmente preparada pela Vodafone para eles e para os seus convidados. Em Setembro, o Pavilhão Atlântico recebe o Vodafone SoundClash!, que colocará grandes artistas nacionais a celebrar a música portuguesa frente-a-frente, em dois palcos. No dia 7 de Setembro, GNR, The Gift, Boss AC e Blasted Mechanism irão actuar e interagir, dando vida a um conceito totalmente inovador. Henrique Amaro dará início a esta celebração com um warm-up especial constituído só por música portuguesa. A fechar em grande estilo, actuarão os DJ Dezperados com um set original preparado exclusivamente para este evento, com música luso sónica. Em Novembro, o Vodafone Mobile Music Awards vai inundar o Coliseu de Lisboa com todo o glamour luso sónico, distinguindo artistas e personalidades da nossa indústria musical num evento único que consagra a música portuguesa.»
informação da Vodafone, 27/02/07
«(...) Em nenhuma parte do mundo existirá um sistema perfeito para medir audiências de televisão, no entanto, na Marktest Audimetria estamos conscientes e convictos de que o sistema que temos é, por enquanto, o melhor que existe. O aparecimento de televisores mais complexos com ecrans de plasma veio tornar ainda mais demorada e difícil a instalação dos audímetros, assim como aumentar a resistência dos painelistas, o que tem contribuído para diminuir a taxa de sucesso de instalação e tornar o processo mais oneroso. Muitas vezes, ouvem-se comentários que os Plasmas e os LCD's não são medidos. Isto não é verdade, no sentido em que a tecnologia que temos hoje, permite essa medição e alguns são medidos, mas por outro lado os proprietários destes aparelhos são cada vez mais resistentes a permitir que um técnico nosso possa abri-los e violar a garantia dos mesmos. Os sistemas de audimetria no futuro terão que estar atentos a estas evoluções e abertos à possibilidade de coexistência de diferentes tecnologias no mesmo painel, dependendo da situação que se deverá medir. Estão a surgir novas formas de medir as audiências de televisão, baseadas em métodos não intrusivos, quer através da introdução de um código na estação emissora, posteriormente detectado pelo meter (encoder, watermarking), quer através da utilização de uma amostragem de som ou imagem feita pelo meter, e posteriormente comparada com uma base de dados existente no Centro de Processamento de Dados, que contém a gravação dos vários canais (soundmatching ou picturematching). Para além das soluções encontradas para a identificação dos canais, existe também a preocupação em acompanhar as alterações dos hábitos televisivos em termos do local de consumo, surgindo os audímetros pessoais, que medem as audiências dentro e fora do lar.
O mais importante e divulgado audímetro pessoal é o PPM - Personal Portable Peoplemeter da Arbitron, que, pelo facto de ser passivo, permite um maior rigor no registo dos canais contactados. Os vários testes realizados, mostram que, medido por este sistema, o consumo de televisão aumenta significativamente quando comparado com o processo padrão de medição actual (Consumo fora do lar e Time Shifting). Este sistema levanta, contudo, outro tipo de preocupações e a principal é que ele está dependente da utilização de um encoder no Broadcaster. Se este se recusar a codificar a sua emissão, pode colocar o sistema em causa. Outra preocupação com este sistema, é que as pessoas têm que transportar um pequeno aparelho todo o dia e isso poderá colocar em causa, em determinadas situações, a confidencialidade dos painelistas. Hoje, existem vários tipos de soluções de medida, assim como uma maior diversidade de realidades mensuráveis, o que obriga a uma maior flexibilidade na utilização das diferentes tecnologias, dependendo apenas daquilo que se vai medir em cada lar. No futuro, a solução tecnológica designada "encoder" ou "watermarking" parece ser a que estará mais adaptada a uma medição mais rigorosa do consumo de media, pois já será dificil falar de emissão de televisão dado o papel cada vez mais importante do "Time Shifting".» (José Manuel Oliveira, da Marktest, 27/03/07)
«(...)entre 1997 e 2006 o consumo de rádio em casa decaiu cerca de 39%, enquanto que a escuta de rádio no carro subiu, no mesmo período, 65%. O automóvel é desde 2005 o local onde mais Portugueses ouvem rádio. Ou seja, a primeira evidência é a de que a Rádio tem deixado progressivamente o lar e passado para o automóvel. (...) Atendendo a que o carro é o local onde mais indivíduos ouvem rádio hoje em dia, é particularmente relevante que o tempo médio se tenha mantido próximo das 2h diárias ao longo destes 10 anos abordados. Por outro lado, o local de trabalho apresenta uma tendência de subida, reforçando valores já elevados, enquanto que em casa a ligeira descida verificada é bem menos significativa do que outros aspectos, nomeadamente o peso deste local no total da escuta de rádio, já abordado atrás»
fonte. Marktest, «Os Portugueses estão a mudar os seus hábitos de audiência de Rádio», 27/03/07
«É provável que os consumidores abandonem um website se demorar mais de quatro segundos a carregar, sugere um estudo do Akamai, acrescentando que a paciência diminui com páginas que demoram muito a aparecer. Dos 1058 inquiridos, 75% disseram que não voltariam a um site que demorasse mais de quatro segundos a carregar. A Akamai consultou aqueles que fazem compras com regularidade online para saber o que eles gostam e não gostam acerca desses sites. Cerca de metade dos consumidores maduros (aqueles que compram online há mais de dois anos ou que gastam mais de 1.500 $ por ano online) consideraram o tempo que as páginas levam a carregar como uma prioridade»
Os dados do Bareme Internet da Marktest mostram como o número de portugueses que costuma aceder à internet aumentou oito vezes nos últimos dez anos. Os dados recentemente divulgados pela segunda vaga de 2006 do Bareme Internet, o estudo de base do Netpanel, contabilizam 3 622 mil indivíduos que costumam utilizar a internet. Este valor representa 43.6% do universo composto pelos residentes no Continente com 15 e mais anos. A análise deste indicador ao longo da última década evidencia o elevado crescimento que tem registado entre nós, ao aumentar oito vezes no período em análise. Os 5.6% de indivíduos que em 1997 acediam à internet passaram em 2006 para 43.6% - mais 679% do que então. Neste período, o ritmo de crescimento da penetração da internet no nosso país situou-se nos 30.6% ao ano.»
fonte: Marktest, «Acesso à internet aumenta oito vezes em dez anos», Marktest.com, 29 de Março de 2007
«(...) A análise por targets mostra como a penetração da internet atinge praticamente o pleno junto dos estudantes (97.3% deles costuma usar a internet) e como é no grupo dos mais jovens que se encontram as maiores taxas de acesso (92.5% junto dos jovens dos 15 aos 17 anos). A ocupação e a idade são as variáveis mais discriminantes na análise deste indicador, pois são as que revelam mais diferenças de comportamento. A classe social também apresenta oscilações significativas, com valores que vão dos 88.3% junto dos indivíduos da classe alta até aos 17.5% junto dos indivíduos da classe baixa. Entre as regiões há menor heterogeneidade, embora os residentes na Grande Lisboa se destaquem dos restantes, pois são os que apresentam taxas superiores de utilização da internet (55.2%).
A análise realizada teve como base os resultados da segunda vaga de 2006 do estudo Bareme Internet da Marktest. Este estudo analisa o universo constituído pelos residentes no Continente com 15 e mais anos. Contacte-nos se deseja adquirir este estudo ou se pretende mais informações sobre o assunto.
fonte: Marktest, «Acesso à internet aumenta oito vezes em dez anos», Marktest.com, 29 de Março de 2007
«Washington, 29 mar (EFE).- O Grupo Chrysler começará a oferecer televisão por satélite em seus monovolumes e outros veículos dos modelos de 2008 após chegar a um acordo com a empresa Sirius Satellite Radio. Inicialmente, o serviço, intitulado "Sirius Backseat", transmitirá apenas a programação dos canais Nickelodeon, Disney Channel e Cartoon Network, três canais especializados em conteúdos infantis e juvenis. Mike Kane, diretor de Inovação do Grupo Chrysler, afirmou hoje, através de comunicado, que considera "que o veículo está se transformando em outro cômodo da casa". "No caso do monovolume é óbvio", declarou. Kane acrescentou que os clientes do Grupo Chrysler estão solicitando inovação, e que "o próximo passo é a televisão no veículo". O serviço, que custará US$ 470 no primeiro ano, estará disponível nos monovolumes da Chrysler e da Dodge. O Grupo Chrysler será a única que contará com este serviço nos modelos de 2008, mas no ano seguinte a Sirius começará a oferecer o serviço a outros fabricantes de automóveis. O sistema, que será mostrado publicamente na semana que vem no Salão Internacional do Automóvel de Nova York, funciona através do equipamento de rádio por satélite da Sirius e do sistema de DVD instalado nos veículos.» fonte: «Chrysler se torna primeira fabricante a oferecer veículos com TV via satélite» 29/03 - 21:17 - EFE EFE
«(...)The ad-driven beta program at www.slacker.com resembles Pandora. But when the full-fledged release becomes available in early summer, Slacker will have several components. Slacker was founded by former chief executives of Musicmatch and Rio, so it is only fitting that Slacker will offer a free software player, like the once-popular Musicmatch Jukebox, and sell a portable iPod-like device, like those Rio made. One twist is that, like Last.fm, the Slacker jukebox will enhance the radio stream by paying attention to the songs you choose. (D.J.’s will aid in programming as well.) Another twist is that, in addition to MP3s, the portable player will carry personalized radio streams that will be automatically freshened. For .50 a month, users get access to more features, but even if you do not pay, you will be able to buy the portable device and have access to free — though ad-rich — radio streams. Most radically, sometime this year Slacker says it will introduce a satellite receiver dock for the portable player. The Slacker team plans to blast individual song files to listeners from a satellite several times an hour. As each song is sent, the player itself will determine whether the song is a good fit for its particular user. If so, it will be saved. If not, it will be rejected. Because of the controversy over royalty rates, and because of its unique portable properties, Slacker made its own licensing deals directly with the four major music groups plus several hundred independent labels. Last.fm recently announced content deals with the Warner Music Group and EMI for tracks on its new, ad-free -a-month premium radio service.»
fonte: «A Radio Station Just for You», NYT, By WILSON ROTHMAN, March 29, 2007
«Here are my thoughts on how news-based radio stations can rise to the challenges of multimedia convergence without overstretching finite resources. The key is sustainability.
1) Play to your strengths
2) Start a conversation with your audience
3) Listen to your audience
4) Don't bite off more than you can chew
6) Don't reinvent the wheel
7) Create a multimedia culture
9) Link to your community
10) RSS feeds
fonte: Multimedia meets radio, «10 ideas for a successful multimedia strategy» 27/3/07
Ramsey: «There are two places worth being in the future: The business of content - the unique and compelling kind. And the business of distribution - the wider the better.Some of the smarter groups are already experimenting with deals in these non-radio channels. Look for these deals to multiply. Further, look for players to get into the radio "game" who have no history here. To the degree that you simply need to hire a handful of program directors to create a broad menu of music-only channels, radio - on a national level - becomes easy for any company which has the distribution - and that means lots of competition which will quickly turn weaker radio brands into commodities.And where should you NOT be? You should not be putting all your eggs in the basket of any one technology (including over-the-air radio, by the way), especially if that technology has no significant distribution (you know what I'm talking about, but I already wrote my one post of the week on that topic).And you should not be in the business of pumping out tunes with no distinction and no added value. You should not, in other words, be in the business of creating a weak all-music brandless brand.Of course, you'll see these challenges first from the younger end of the audience. And no, they will not grow out of it.»
«In a dramatic acceleration of the seven-year sales decline that has battered the music industry, compact-disc sales for the first three months of this year plunged 20% from a year earlier, the latest sign of the seismic shift in the way consumers acquire music. The sharp slide in sales of CDs, which still account for more than 85% of music sold, has far eclipsed the growth in sales of digital downloads, which were supposed to have been the industry's salvation.»
fonte: Wall Street Journal, «Sales of Music, Long in Decline, Plunge Sharply», By Ethan Smith, Março 07mais: http://www.kurthanson.com/archive/news/032207/index.shtml
«NOVA YORK (Reuters) - A MTV Networks, que controla os canais MTV e Comedy Central, adotou uma nova e arriscada estratégia para a Web, a fim de reconquistar os espectadores jovens que a trocaram por sites como o YouTube e o MySpace. A rede, que já tem 150 sites operando em 162 países, planeja criar literalmente milhares de outros, na expectativa de atrair espectadores permitindo que assistam, contribuam e até reeditem seus programas de TV. "As pessoas tendem a encontrar conteúdo na Internet por milhares de portas, e não uma só", disse Mika Salmi, novo presidente da divisão digital da MTV Networks, subsidiária da Viacom."De certas maneiras, estamos em posição melhor do que a maioria das empresas de mídia, ocupamos o lugar que elas desejam", disse. O canal MTV no passado era sinônimo de cultura jovem, mas redes sociais de grande popularidade, como o MySpace, da News Corp., e o site de vídeo online YouTube, do Google, atraíram número considerável de seus espectadores. A nova estratégia da MTV Networks é parte de um esforço da Viacom para atingir uma audiência mais ampla, que passa tanto tempo na Internet e jogando videogames quanto dedica à televisão, e não quer mais se incomodar com quando e onde um programa será exibido. O objetivo é construir sites relacionados a cada personalidade e aspecto de seus programas, esperando atrair espectadores quer pela Internet, quer pelo celular, disse Salmi em entrevista.O grupo criou três mundos virtuais --Laguna Beach, para adolescentes; Nicktropolis, para crianças; e Virtual Hills, para adultos-- e diz que os novos sites podem ajudá-la a promover programas e personalidades específicos de maneira mais ampla. (...)Nos próximos meses, Salmi disse que a companhia planeja abrir mais seus arquivos, permitindo que internautas publiquem vídeos em seus próprios sites e também reeditem alguns deles. "Os consumidores querem controle", disse o analista Richard Greenfield, da Pali Capital. "Lutar contra essa tendência não é uma estratégia vencedora... Eles estão indo na direção certa agora."»
fonte: «06/03/2007, MTV Networks reforça ação na Web para reconquistar espectadores»
«"Apple Inc. sold a record 21 million iPods for the holiday quarter, which helped boost the company's revenues by 50% and accounted for sales of .43 billion--half of Apple's total sales for the quarter, the company reported this week," Emily Burg reports in an updated article for MediaPost's MarketingDaily.
Já teve mais: «Research company The NPD Group said in a report released Tuesday that various versions of the iPod accounted for 92.1 percent of the market for hard drive-based music players, up from 82.2 percent a year ago. Players from Creative Technology and Digital Networks North America's Rio were a distant second and third, with 3.7 percent and 3.2 percent of the market, respectively.» (outubro 2004)
«(...) audiência mais ampla, que passa tanto tempo na Internet e jogando videogames quanto dedica à televisão, e não quer mais se incomodar com quando e onde um programa será exibido.»
fonte: «06/03/2007, MTV Networks reforça ação na Web para reconquistar espectadores»
«A recent FCC analysis of satellite competition determined that the relevant market for satellite radio consists solely of Sirius and XM. The agency relied on antitrust law and the Department of Justice merger guidelines in finding that other audio services such as terrestrial radio (including HD Radio), iPods, and Internet radio are not competitive substitutes. Sirius and XM have tried to justify their proposed merger based on competition from iPods, HD Radio and other forms of audio entertainment. "The reality is that satellite radio competes with an awful lot of audio services -- terrestrial radio, Internet radio, with cell phones when hooked up to Bluetooth, and we compete with MP3 players," said Sirius CEO Mel Karmazin testifying before the Senate Judiciary's Subcommittee on Antitrust Competition last week. "This FCC decision that the current duopoly of XM and Sirius do not compete with radio, iPods or any other audio sources in the satellite radio market further undermines the arguments made by XM and Sirius to obtain a government-sanctioned monopoly," said NAB President/CEO David K. Rehr. "While the FCC clearly intends to examine all issues surrounding the XM/Sirius merger, the hurdle the parties must overcome to convince the FCC to change direction is very high."»
fonte: «FCC: Sirius, XM Do Not Compete with Terrestrial Radio », 30/03/07, Radio Online
(dir-se-ia que pagar para ouvir rádio através de streaming nos telemóveis, como um serviço da assinatura internet, não faria sentido, mas é preciso não esquecer que a rádio via streaming não tem fronteiras nem limites geográficos)
«Clear Channel Radio and mSpot said music programming from 10 Clear Channel stations can be heard on mSpot’s radio services over cell phones. Next month, mSpot expects to distribute live broadcasts from about 100 Clear Channel stations. The agreements broaden Clear Channel’s mobile content portfolio and expose it to subscribers of mSpot’s operator customers. Clear Channel Radio is providing CHR and urban programming from five stations. MSpot offers mobile music, radio and movie services to wireless carriers»
fonte: «Clear Channel Adds Music Channels to Cell Phones With mSpot Radio, Radio World, 30/3/07
«The BBC is to trial the broadcasting of up to eight of its national radio stations via 3G mobile phones. Radio 1, 1Xtra, Radio 2, Radio 3, Radio 4, 6 Music, BBC7 and the Asian Network will be available within a month to Vodafone, Orange and 3 customers who subscribe to their network's TV service. Radio 5 Live will not be available.
fonte: Radio Today, BBC digital radio via 3G, Thursday 29 March 2007
«(...) The days when radio station sites could simply function as blinking billboards, showcasing station events and DJ bios are long gone. Today, sites need to be interactive, focus on the music that listeners love, provide video, and cater to the needs of listeners [Fred Jacobs dá o exemplo de uma rádio dos EUA, a 107.7 The Bone, que tem uma página chamada «Ask th PD», ou seja, perguntem ao director de programas; este responde on line às perguntas dos ouvintes].»
fonte: Fred Jacobs, «MyCandidate», 30/03/07, Jacobs Media
«ZURICH, Switzerland, March 27 /PRNewswire/ -- SVOX, a global supplier of text-to-speech output solutions for the automotive and mobile industries, teamed with Audi and the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS to demonstrate during CeBIT a real-time transmission chain of the first live in-car reception of NewsService Journaline(R) service over Digital Radio DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) according to SVOX CEO Volker Jantzen.
fonte: «Audi - SVOX Powers In-Car Digital Radio News Service Developed by Audi and Fraunhofer IIS», Auto Spectator, 2007/3/29
«(...)Then there is radio. The chief executive of Google, Eric Schmidt, said last year that the company would eventually have 1,000 employees dedicated to radio advertising alone. (...) Google's effort to sell radio ads, the oldest and most advanced of its major offline advertising plans, has run into several hurdles, including radio stations that are wary of losing control over the sale and pricing of ads. The promise that Google offers old-line media markets is that it can replicate the formula that has worked so well for it online. It is a formula that relies heavily on technology to allow advertisers to buy their own ads, have them appear on relevant pages across a vast network of Web sites, and then track the results (...).»
fonte: IHT, Can Google sell that radio gaga?, Miguel Helft, 29/03/07
‘Quem me leva os meus fantasmas’ é o nome da nova música de Abrunhosa, que poderá ser ouvida aqui, a partir de segunda-feira, logo de manhã. 'Quem me leva os meus fantasmas' é o tema de apresentação do quinto álbum de originais de Abrunhosa. O site do Expresso foi escolhido por Pedro Abrunhosa para lançar, em exclusivo no ciberespaço, o seu novo single. A partir das 8h15 de segunda-feira, dia 2, vai ser possível ouvir ‘Quem me leva os meus fantasmas’, o tema de apresentação do novo disco.
Composto e escrito pelo músico do Porto, o single conta com os fiéis Bandemónio e com o St. Dominic’s Gospel Choir, dirigido por João de Castro. Sem “romantismos nem ilusões”, Pedro Abrunhosa promete “romper a superficialidade da pop contemporânea” com a música ‘Quem me leva os meus fantasmas’. Tudo porque a “canção não pode continuar a ser apenas entretenimento”.
Este disco, o quinto de originais, sucede a ‘Momentos’, que em 2003 vendeu mais de 90 mil exemplares e rendeu ao artista do Porto a dupla platina. A edição do novo álbum está prevista para o final de Maio, mas o seu nome continua em segredo.
O «videoclip» de ‘Quem me leva os meus fantasmas’ vai ser também lançado no sítio do Expresso, uma semana depois do single: dia 9 de Abril».
fonte: «Pedro Abrunhosa lança single no site do Expresso», 30/03/07, Paula Cosme Pinto
«Everybody wants more choice, right? Wrong. Everybody thinks they want more choice. In fact what they want is their choice - and the shortest possible path to it. Misunderstanding this leads us down a path that fills our supermarket aisles, not to mention our HD and satellite radios. (...)»
Outro contributo: «Having grown up in the abundance of the US, I was basically taught that freedom is, among other things, the maximization of choices. The more choices the better. All those choices. All that abundance.157 kinds of breakfast cereal…how to decide? The freedom to choose, at least on things that matter most, is a wonderful gift indeed. Yet, in our daily lives we too often burden ourselves with petty choices, unimportant matters, and frivolous decisions. In today’s world we may have political/social freedom (if we're lucky), but often lack “a freedom of mind,” the very freedom that can matter most when aiming to construct creative solutions to complex problems. Our minds — even our lives in general — have become complicated by clutter. (...) Life is about living with limitations and constraints of one type or another, but constraints are not necessarily bad, in fact they are often helpful, even inspiring as they challenge us to think differently and more creatively about a particular problem. While problems such as a sudden request to give a 20-minute sales pitch or a 45-minute overview of our research findings have built-in limitations — such as time, tools, and budget — we can increase our effectiveness by stepping back, thinking long and hard, and determining ways we can set our own parameters and constraints as we set out to prepare and design our next presentation (or next design project, etc.) with great clarity, focus, balance, and purpose» (fonte: «Can limitations and restrictions be liberating?», 29/03/07, Presentation Zen)
«The radio is a magnificent invention. It transports information and music in a manner that my English major mind cannot even grasp-for free. Radio was hilarious and endearing as voiced by Jon Lovitz in the Brave Little Toaster. We should all love the radio.
fonte: «Boycott your radio», Jess McCauley '07, 03/29/07
fonte: Multimedia meets radio, «10 ideas for a successful multimedia strategy» 27/3/07
Transistor kills the radio star?
Um blogue de suporte a uma investigação sobre a rádio do futuro - ou o que quer que ela se venha a chamar...
Textos de referência