Se muestran los artículos pertenecientes a Septiembre de 2005.
Surgiu em 1999
, criado por Shawn Fanning.
Até agora podem ser distinguidas duas fases: na primeira, a partir de 1999, o Napster era um software que usava o mp3 para permitir a troca de ficheiros musicais na internet. Não os armazenava, mas permitia procurar e descarregar essas músicas em sistema de partilha, a partir dos discos rígidos de cada utilizador (o chamado P2P, peer to peer).
Obvimente este sistema favorecia (incentivava?) a pirataria e, mal ganhou dimensão, o Napster foi alvo de acções judiciais por parte de músicos e da própria indústria discográfica norte-americana. Nessa altura era o mais importante sistema de troca de ficheiros musicais na internet.
fechou e reabriu agora com funcionamento legal. E com o mp3
O risco da análise prospectiva, as dificuldades que um trabalho como este pode apresentar; as previsões que estão condenadas?
Todas as previsões que envolvam, directa ou indirectamente, tecnologia correm o risco de ficar condenadas; todas as cautelas são poucas: ou como o telemóvel permite um conjunto de especializações que põem em causa a certeza desta afirmação:
“Radio has managed to evolve to survive through technological advancements and is now relied upon for news, traffic updates and weather reports in a way that TV is not. In a traffic jam the radio is your only companion, in hospital it is the same, and in the middle of the night when the whole world appears to be asleep your radio with the late-night broadcaster's soothing voice is your sole companion.” (Hollingsworth, Mike, How to get into Television, Radio and New Media, Continuum, Londres, 2003pág 23)
Rádios nos hospitais (GB):Over 90 per cento of the UK’s hospital population has the benefit of the hospital broadcasting. This means that over 18 million people can hear specially produced local hospital programmes every year. The benents specially produced local hospital programmes every year. The benefits of hospital broadcasting services to both patients and staff are well recognized by the Department of Health” (Hollingsworth, Mike, How to get into Television , Radio and New Media, Continuum, Londres, 2003, pág 34)
Rádios nas faculdades (GB):
“Every large college and university that offers media courses as a campus radio station, and although you may not be promised the widest of audiences, it offers a great opportunity to get to grips with radio” (Hollingsworth, Mike, How to get into Television , Radio and New Media, Continuum, Londres, 2003, pág. 35)
Martí i Martí, Josep Maria, Modelos de programación radiofonica, Feed-Back Ediciones, 1990
Hollingsworth, Mike, How to get into Television, Radio and New Media, Continuum, Londres, 2003
"The forecast predicts that by the end of 2009 there will be around 20 million DAB digital radios in UK homes, up from 1.2 million at the end of 2004".O estudo é da Digital Radio Development Bureau
e fala num crescimento de mais de 40 por cento na penetração doméstica desta tecnologia nos próximos cinco anos.
São previsões impressionantes de que deixo aqui ficar o essencial:
"Annual Volume: The biggest growth is expected to come in products such as boomboxes, hi-fi systems, personal (handheld) radios, clock radios and the in-car sector.
* Annual volume of Hi-Fi systems will grow from a forecast 302,000 in 2005 to 1.448 million in 2009
* Boomboxes will go from 147,000 in 2005 to 831,000 in 2009
* Clock radios jump from 72,000 in 2005 to 868,000 in 2009
* Personal radios go from 69,000 in 2005 to 461,000 in 2009
* Personal radios with MP3 take a massive leap from just 11,000 in 2005 to 480,000 in 2009
* In car retail goes from 15,000 in 2005 to 366,000 in 2009
* Car manufacturer radios goes from 15,000 in 2005 to 702,000 in 2009."
"TV Portátil - A revolução tecnológica da televisão
A televisão portátil, ainda em fase de experiências, surge das evoluções tecnológicas no sector da televisão e irá trazer profundas alterações aos serviços disponibilizados e aos hábitos de consumo.
Brevemente, a televisão, tradicionalmente um meio de comunicação electrónica de recepção fixa, deverá atingir a sua forma nómada de alta tecnologia, tal como aconteceu com a rádio, o telefone e o cinema, graças ao leitor de DVD portátil.
Para que se possa falar verdadeiramente de televisão móvel, é necessário que o conteúdo disponível ao telespectador venha, em tempo real, de uma fonte exterior
. Esta exigência pôde, durante algum tempo, ser satisfeita a um custo razoável através das tecnologias clássicas da televisão. Mas, pouco depois, surgiram várias evoluções tecnológicas que abriram caminho a produtos e serviços destinados ao grande público, agora sujeitas a experiências-piloto em vários países.
A aparição de novos formatos de codificação trouxeram as melhores perspectivas económicas. Em particular, o protocolo MPEG-4 que permite difundir uma imagem de tamanho reduzido com apenas uma parca quantidade de kilobits por segundo. Desta forma, pode difundir vários programas num multiplex móvel, o que melhora consideravelmente o custo de difusão por canal.
A portabilidade (vem da noção inglesa de handheld device), descreve uma nova forma de mobilidade à escala do indivíduo. Em portabilidade, o receptor funciona sem alimentação externa, sem antena e tolera as deslocações e velocidades seja a pé ou em trajectos com viatura. É uma nova forma de mobilidade e de consumo comparável àquela que se procura na telefonia portátil.
Existem duas formas de difusão. Uma por via terrestre, outra assegura a cobertura do território através de um satélite, complementada por retransmissores terrestres.
As principais tecnologias de difusão terrestre de televisão móvel surgem de quatro protocolos de transporte:
Tecnologia FLO Qualcomm;
Actualmente existem duas tecnologias de difusão por satélite:
Para mais informações consulte o estudo ““Télévision Numérique et Mobilité
”, da DDM (Direction du Développement des Médias).
É o triunfo do podcasting: uma empresa de software
, que até agora lidava apenas com recolha de som na internet, lançou uma nova versão que já permite descobrir e descarregar podcastings.
"Finding and subscribing to Podcasts is done through the Media Guide. You can search by Top Rated shows, category, Podcast name, and other ways. Once you have found a Podcast you’re interested in, you can play it from within the Media Guide, download a particular show episode, subscribe to a Podcast by automatically moving it to iTunes, mark an episode as a favorite, convert automatically to iPod bookmarkable, burn podcasts directly to CDs and check for new shows at specified times or intervals.
Replay Radio is a premiere application suited to handle most any online and offline recording needs. The developers have been meticulous in correcting any bugs, adding fixes and continually making the product better.
The full version of Replay Radio is .95 and considering how much it offers, this is one software investment you don't have to justify."
"O mundo digital apresenta novos desafios para a rádio. Muito se tem falado da digitalização do sinal FM, das rádios por satélite ou através da Internet mas, outro aspecto que também pode ser explorado é a digitalização do AM e da Onda Curta, recuperando e revitalizando dois sinais relegados para segundo plano. Em Espanha, a cadeia de rádios la Cope tem estado a realizar testes de emissão digital em onda média, com DRM.
Os testes de emissão simulcasting com a Digital Radio Mondial (DRM) em Onda Media foram realizados em Zamora e tiveram a participação da Universidade Politécnica de Vigo. Este teste usou uma frequência de rádio já ocupada e procurou emitir um sinal de qualidade digital que não interferisse com o sinal original, no mesmo âmbito de cobertura.
O resultado não correspondeu às expectativas iniciais e será necessário usar outros parâmetros de emissão e uma planificação mais ajustada para não produzir qualquer interferência. Este teste, tal como outros que já têm sido feitos, comprova o AM como um segmento de negócio interessante para as empresas de rádio que, com o sinal digital, recupera a qualidade do seu sinal, factor que de alguma forma, afastou os ouvintes.
Contudo, e porque o simulcasting ainda interfere com o sinal FM e diminui a qualidade da emissão digital, muitos operadores estão a manter o seu sinal analógico AM e a usar a onda curta para emissões digitais."
Excerto de um texto
de Higino Germani (in Clube de Jornalistas):
"Com estas características, perguntamos : Porque insistir em sistema “in band” ?
Os ouvintes não terão que adquirir um novo receptor para ouvir os sinais digitais ? Como a resposta é obviamente afirmativa, cremos que boa parte das argumentações da opção “in band” cai
Será verdadeiramente viável que, após um certo período de transição, o sinal analógico deixará de ser transmitido,
permanecendo apenas o digital ? Ou será que, para cobrir deficiências da cobertura digital teremos que manter no ar permanentemente trambolhos de dezenas de quilowatts com alto consumo de energia elétrica ?
Nos vemos em situação semelhante ao advento da máquina a vapor nas embarcações : inicialmente as instalaram em veleiros com resultados obviamente desastrosos; ou então com o advento do motor a combustão interna : não foi projetado um automóvel e sim instalado o motor em carruagens, no lugar dos cavalos ...
Estaríamos agora colocando turbinas em veleiros ou em carruagens?!
Não será possível criarmos uma Nova Radiodifusão em todos os sentidos e não apenas inserir as técnicas digitais no Rádio existente?
Motorola e Apple juntam telemóvel e música num só
«Chama-se Rokr, foi desenvolvido pela Motorola e pela Apple e junta as funções de telemóvel e de leitor de áudio portátil. Com capacidade para guardar até cem faixas de música, foi apresentado esta semana como o primeiro telemóvel com ligação ao iTunes, o mais famoso serviço de compra de música on-line. Já disponível nos EUA, onde custa 250 dólares, o Rokr chegará brevemente a vários países da Europa e da Ásia.
Poder telefonar e ouvir música a partir de um só dispositivo portátil foi o objectivo que levou a Motorola e a Apple a juntarem-se para desenvolver o Rokr (ou rocker, como se deve pronunciar). As duas empresas apresentaram-no em conjunto com a Cingular Wireless, uma operadora de telecomunicações norte-americana que, para já, será a única a possibilitar, nos EUA, as comunicações móveis a partir do Rokr.
As suas características são idênticas às de muitos outros telemóveis: possui uma autonomia que permite conversar durante cerca de nove horas, ecrã a cores, câmara integrada e pesa 107 gramas. A novidade está no facto de ter sido criado a pensar num fácil acesso ao serviço de música iTunes e numa simples passagem das funcionalidades de telemóvel para as de leitor de áudio. O Rokr integra auscultadores e microfone e os ficheiros de música podem ser transferidos do computador para este equipamento através de ligação USB (Universal Serial Bus).»
excerto de um texto da ultima pagina do Publico de ontem, assinado por Isabel Gorjão Santos
Um relatório sobre a música portátil no japão alertou-me para uma realidade em que não acredito, por pensar que é passageira, mas que existe e não pode ser ignorada. "Mobile Music". O que é isso? Basicamente, os toques e músicas nos telemóveis (e não tanto o mercado dos downloads ou da música digital, via internet.
Uma citação deste relatório
"Polyphonic ringtones were pioneered in Japan on i-Mode, and today mobile music in Japan represents a totally new Billion Dollar per year."
de Rogério Santos
"Os ouvintes terão ao seu dispor, em breve, um novo tipo de rádio, capaz de sintonizar estações convencionais (analógicas) e digitais. A nova geração de receptores foi apresentada pelo consórcio da Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) na convenção internacional de radiodifusão, que acaba hoje em Amsterdão. O DRM coloca-se como meio de substituir as emissões em ondas longas, médias e curtas, prestando um serviço de maior qualidade que o oferecido em FM/RDS (que também substituirá, bem como o DAB). Actualmente, há 40 emissores na Europa, com mais de 500 horas de programas diários usando DRM, casos de Radio Luxembourg e da BBC World Service. Também a alemã Deutsche Welle está a preparar-se para entrar no DRM. E diversas estações comerciais manifestaram a intenção de se juntar a este grupo. Os aparelhos resultam de uma colaboração do consórcio DRM com a Texas Instruments e a RadioScape. Neste momento, os fabricantes são Morphy Richards, Roberts Radio e Sangean.
Claro que isto está a acontecer na Europa do Centro. E em Portugal? O consórcio DRM vai lançar este tipo de receptores brevemente, a pensar nas compras de Natal. Embora não haja preços oficiais, calcula-se que um aparelho custe à volta de €250. Isto é um pouco abaixo da nova consola de videojogos, que anunciei há pouco tempo atrás. A juntar à febre dos televisores LCD e plasma, os consumidores têm muito por onde escolher para as suas prendas de Natal. Espera-se que o dinheiro estique!"
(com esta ligação para a BBC
(excerto da Revista Veja de 2 de março de 2005, edição 1894 - em textos de referência)
"Cinqüenta anos depois do fim de sua era de ouro, o rádio parece estar reencontrando o seu vigor. Ele está presente na casa de nove em cada dez brasileiros, é influente na cultura e na política, tem enorme apelo sobre os jovens e ultimamente renovou sua capacidade de revelar estrelas para o showbiz. De acordo com o Ibope, mais pessoas sintonizam o rádio do que assistem a televisão diariamente na Grande São Paulo – um quadro que se repete na maior parte das metrópoles brasileiras. O número de emissoras não pára de crescer no país: são mais de 6.000, soma inferior apenas à dos Estados Unidos. Numa pesquisa recente com jovens de todo o Brasil, 89% apontaram o meio como sua segunda fonte de entretenimento, logo atrás da TV e à frente dos encontros com os amigos. Isso de segunda a sexta. Nos fins de semana, a situação se inverte: os jovens preferem ouvir rádio a ver televisão. A popularidade com a garotada explica, em boa medida, por que o rádio recupera o seu prestígio e volta a fazer estrelas."
("excerto da Revista Veja de 2 de março de 2005, edição 1894 - em textos de referência)
"Comercialmente, as rádios enfrentam o seu quinhão de problemas. Há anos seu faturamento estagnou-se na casa dos 4% do bolo de recursos de publicidade. Em desvantagem na disputa por verbas com a televisão e outros meios, as emissoras vêm buscando uma nova estratégia, que é a formação de grandes redes. As maiores delas são a Gaúcha Sat e a Jovem Pan, que controlam mais de 100 rádios cada uma. Há duas semanas, a Bandeirantes também atingiu essa marca. A empresa, que já detinha mais de noventa emissoras, acaba de incorporar mais seis, dentre as quais algumas das mais ouvidas em São Paulo, como a Nativa e a 89 FM. As redes são vistas com reserva por alguns especialistas, que acreditam que elas podem pasteurizar a programação musical das FMs. Esses temores, no entanto, têm sido desmentidos pela realidade. "As redes perceberam que têm de dar espaço para os noticiários e os locutores de cada região para não sofrer reflexos negativos na audiência", diz o publicitário Paulo Gregoraci, do Grupo de Mídia São Paulo. De fato, o rádio tira boa parte de sua força da relação de proximidade com os ouvintes de uma localidade ou região. É isso o que explica o sucesso de um programa como Dona da Noite, que vai ao ar pela rádio Itatiaia, de Belo Horizonte, e por outras 37 afiliadas da rede. Especialista em aconselhamento amoroso, o locutor Hamilton de Castro acalenta os insones mineiros há 29 anos. "Minha voz faz companhia aos ouvintes", diz ele, que já foi padrinho de mais de 800 casais que se conheceram no programa ou durante os bailes e excursões que organiza."
Já tinha abordado, neste espaço, a hipótese de os Leitores Digitais de Musica se compatibilizarem como alternativa à rádio no único domínio que lhe era, até agora, exclusivo: o carro!
Esta notícia dá conta da aposta da Apple em ligar os seus iPods aos rádios do carro (e como vem dos Estados Unidos, a realidade de que falam já não é a do rádio FM mas o satélite).
"IPods On Wheels Could Cut Into Demand For Satellite Radio
As reported by Reuters, Apple Computer this week outlined plans to expand its iPod music players into cars, raising concerns that the move could cut into the growing demand for satellite radio.
Apple, which already cut a deal with BMW, announced it’s teamed with Acura, Audi, Honda and Volkswagen to integrate iPod products into their car stereos for 2006 model lines. They expect more than five million vehicles will ship with iPod support in the US next year.
As for industry reaction to Apple’s plan, XM doesn’t think iPod in autos is threat.
"These are two very different offerings, both of which have been embraced by millions of consumers," said XM spokesman Chance Patterson.
"XM is unique because we have hundreds of programmers delivering millions of songs plus live news, live sports and talk directly to subscribers," Patterson added.
Sirius Satellite Radio, meanwhile, declined to comment.
"If the iPod feature is cheaper and allows you to download music you already own, some car buyers might decide they’re not going to take satellite radio," said Gordon Wangers, CEO of AMCI, a California-based auto marketing consulting company.
"It could be a slight threat to satellite radio but I would expect they’ll coexist," commented Kit Spring, an analyst with Stifel Nicolaus and Co., noting that listening to a radio is a more passive activity than using an iPod and that radio has live content."
The biggest U.S. mobile service companies are considering selling phones that can play songs and some have plans to deliver music to phones over the wireless airwaves, in a bid to boost revenue as phone call prices drop.
NEW YORK (Reuters
) - Cell phones may become the new way for the iPod masses to download and listen to music in the coming years, but wireless companies may not see much of a boost to their profits from selling such services.
The biggest U.S. mobile service companies are considering selling phones that can play songs and some have plans to deliver music to phones over the wireless airwaves, in a bid to boost revenue as phone call prices drop.
Analysts expect Cingular Wireless, the biggest U.S. mobile service, to reveal plans on Wednesday to sell a new Motorola Inc. (MOT.N: Quote, Profile, Research) phone that comes with iTunes, the music store software from Apple Computer Inc.(AAPL.O: Quote, Profile, Research) , whose iPod player dominates the portable digital music market.
At least initially, Cingular is expected to let users transfer songs to the phone from computers rather than through wireless download services.
POOR PROFIT MARGINS FOR SONGS
Despite all the excitement about wireless song purchases, such mobile music is likely to deliver much poorer profit margins than wireless carriers are used to from phone calls or other services such as ringtones, one analyst said.
"There's very little room for profits from the full over-the-air download market," said Yankee Group analyst Linda Barrabee who believes music industry players could benefit most
from these new types of services.
The No. 2 and No. 3 U.S. mobile services Verizon Wireless (VZ.N: Quote, Profile, Research) (VOD.L: Quote, Profile, Research) , and Sprint Nextel Corp. (S.N: Quote, Profile, Research) have already said they are planning mobile music download services.
Pricing these services could require a tough balancing act between profitability and creating widespread demand since iTunes, Apple's high profile digital music service, charges only 99 cents a song, analysts said.
Sprint has said it believes wireless customers, which already pay as much as for ringtones, will pay more for song downloads on-the-go than for downloads to their computer.
New York Times
July 28, 2005
Revolution on the Radio
By GLENN FLEISHMAN
Plug a set of headphones into a radio tuned to an FM jazz station. Hear the hiss at the bottom of the range and the fuzz at the top. Remember why you like compact discs.
But don't be impatient: wait eight seconds. An "HD" light appears on the tuner. And now the bottom drops out. The hiss turns to silence. The stereo channels separate, opening a cramped room into a performance hall. And the high fuzz is now crisp high notes from a trumpet or Ella Fitzgerald.
You have just heard terrestrial digital radio. Or you would have - if you could get your hands on a receiver.
Satellite digital radio has captured the attention of consumers and investors with its billions spent and millions of paying subscribers. But a quiet digital revolution has hit the AM and FM dials as well: more than 450 stations in the United States now broadcast one or two digital channels alongside analog ones. At least 2,000 of the more than 12,000 stations in the country are committed to adding the format.
The technology to make this happen - called in-band on-channel, or IBOC - hides digital signals at low power in the spaces between stations. Only one company's technology has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission: HD Radio from iBiquity Digital. (IBiquity says HD does not stand for high definition - or anything else.)
Digital AM sounds like present-day stereo analog FM. Digital FM not only improves fidelity and stereo reception, providing a dynamic audio range approaching that of a compact disc, but also makes use of enough bandwidth to allow multiple channels.
An HD Radio tuner takes eight seconds to lock onto and start playing a digital stream; the analog broadcast seamlessly switches into richer audio, providing a demonstration of its improved quality.
Unlike satellite radio, digital AM and FM are free to listeners. But only a few tens of thousands of car tuners equipped to decode the signals have been sold in the 18 months since the first product was shipped, according to Dan Benjamin, a senior analyst at ABI Research in Oyster Bay, N.Y. Home tuners are just reaching the market.
How Digital Radio Works
IBOC uses a part of the spectrum just outside the frequency used for a radio station's conventional signals.
HD Radio is capable of great range with a small fraction of the power of analog radio. In a test by National Public Radio and WNYC-FM, a 57-watt transmitter on the Empire State Building reached almost all of WNYC's coverage area, with a population of 16 million, according to Mike Starling, NPR's vice president for engineering.
The technology sends multiple streams of data over very narrow frequencies to solve the problems of analog AM and FM reception. The streams are separately received, synchronized and assembled by the radio tuner.
In AM, this avoids having signals fade in short tunnels and will prevent noise from electrical motors. "It gets rid of the majority of problems with AM radio," said Thomas R. Ray III, director of engineering for Buckley Broadcasting and WOR-AM, a commercial talk-radio station in New York that has added digital transmissions.
With FM stations, multipath reflection can be controlled with HD Radio, avoiding audible echoes from signals bouncing off buildings. "You don't get that sort of 'fumth-th-th-fumth' sound," said Stephen Shenefield, director of product development at Boston Acoustics, an audio equipment manufacturer.
FM radio has a larger spread of unused spectrum, and National Public Radio and public radio stations successfully pushed the F.C.C. to allow multicasting, or multiple digital channels of different quality for existing stations. The F.C.C. allows a second digital channel with a waiver; up to five channels may be permitted in the future.
Public radio produces much more programming than its member stations can broadcast: 300 hours a week, Mr. Starling of NPR said. NPR is now offering five full-time music streams to stations for HD Radio multicasting as well. "If we had more shelf space, we could do more format focusing," Mr. Starling said.
KUOW-FM in Seattle broadcasts what it calls KUOW2, a full slate of reruns of local and network programs with a dedicated host.
Commercial broadcasters, too, are taking note. Clear Channel, which owns 1,200 stations, says it is committed to taking 95 percent of its stations in the top 100 markets digital within three years. Among the attractions is HD Radio's ability to deliver data streams alongside audio. The system can already carry program-associated data, like a song title, artist and album name. But the capacity exists for much more.
Robert J. Struble, chairman and chief executive of iBiquity, noted that the text of advertising messages could be synchronized to display on a radio's readout as a related commercial was broadcast. Other uses include traffic updates for car navigation systems and private commercial data transmissions.
A future version of the technology will feature a data uplink that could let stations have a "buy now" button for songs. "There's no better place to make an impulse purchase than when I'm sitting in traffic," Mr. Struble said.
HD Radio has the potential to limit access to certain channels by receiver serial number, much as with satellite digital radio, so that specific programming could be delivered for a fee.
Mr. Starling mused that the "buy now" button might read "pledge now" for public radio stations, and that a station could allow only listeners who donate funds to tune to a digital channel free of fund-raising during pledge drives.
How to Listen
HD Radio was limited to car receivers from its retail introduction in January 2004 until June 2005. The earliest HD Radio manufacturer, Kenwood (kenwoodusa.com), now has 40 models compatible with a 9 HD Radio adapter; other makers have a few products released, but a flood is in the pipeline. A representative of Visteon, a major automotive systems supplier, said automakers could offer HD Radio as an option in the 2006 model year.
Yamaha (www.yamaha.com) released the first home radio in June, its RX-V4600 (,900), a home entertainment centerpiece. In tests of all Seattle-area FM HD Radio stations using the Yamaha unit, the results were breathtaking. Tuning in secondary multicast channels, however, required use of the remote control and was awkward.
Three companies plan simpler tabletop tables, each of which will add multicast digital stations sequentially: turning the dial will tune through those secondary stations.
The Radiosophy receiver docks in a speaker unit; together, the two parts cost 9 direct from the company, including shipping. Radiosophy expects to offer a car adapter kit later. The receiver includes analog and digital optical outputs. The company (www.radiosophy.com) expects to ship the product in September.
The Recepter Radio HD (9) made by Boston Acoustics (www .bostonacoustics.com) has a single built-in speaker and a satellite speaker to produce stereo audio. It is also a clock radio, and has stereo input and multiple outputs. The radio should be available in late August.
Polk Audio has built HD Radio into a more elaborate all-in-one entertainment system that includes a CD and DVD player and speakers, and multiple inputs and outputs. The 9 unit, called the I-Sonic, is also equipped for satellite XM Radio through a plug-in module. Polk Audio has delayed shipping until late in the year (www.polkaudio.com).
No one in the industry expects to replace a billion analog radios overnight. Even Mr. Struble of iBiquity put the most optimistic date for an analog shutdown as 12 years from now, though he thought that was unlikely.
Still, there are already listeners, however few. "The last time we had to shut down the HD - off for any reason - we had eight phone calls," Mr. Ray of WOR said. "People wanted to know why."
(é uma coisa a sério!)Um excerto:
"A podcast, as anyone under 25 can tell you, is an audio recording posted online, much like a short radio show. ("Podcasting" is a pun on "broadcasting," implying, of course, that you listen to it on your iPod or another music player.) The beauty of a podcast is that it's free and you listen to it whenever you like. And there are more than 7,000 podcasts "on the air" right now, on every conceivable topic. Their quantity and variety already dwarf what you can find on regular radio.
What makes podcasting a national dinnertime conversation these days, though, is that anyone can make one. You just need a microphone, a sound-recording program, and the tutorials that have already appeared at many points on the Web, including apple.com/podcasting.
Yes, some are corporate broadcasts, repurposed shows from traditional radio shows. But the real fun is finding the homemade ones, the amateur attempts made in somebody's basement with a laptop and a microphone. These can be unpolished and quirky, with plenty of dead air and "ums," but that's their charm. Podcasts, in other words, are the audio version of blogs - the Web logs, or daily text postings, that made up last year's hot dinnertime conversation."
Infinity's All News Podcasters: All Nine Online
Sep. 06, 2005
By Tony Sanders
Infinity’s nine all news AM stations are now offering podcasts. In most cases, the podcast offerings from each station are extensive, however WCBS-AM New York and both KNX and KFWB in Los Angeles have limited on-demand audio offerings.
WCBS-AM's "Yankee Rewind” offers the station's post-game Yankees baseball show. The station also offers a set of streaming programs on its “Hear it Fast” Web page. Infinity news flagship WINS provides the rest of the podcast offerings from the group’s New York news outlets.
KYW Philadelphia also provides an extensive menu on its podcast page, which debuted in late August. WINS launched on Aug. 5.
The KFWB podcast page is currently limited to three programs: “What’s for Dinner with Melinda Lee”; “Mario Martinoli on Dining” and “Lifestyle Minute with Anthony Dias Blue.”
Likewise, the podcast page for KNX Los Angeles is limited to five programs: “What’s for Dinner with Melinda Lee” (also at the KFWB site), “Eye on Computers” with Jeff Levy, a set of four exclusive interviews with Michael Jackson, a program titled “Character Counts, Josephson on Ethics” and a special “Farewell to Columbia Square.”
Each of the remaining four all newsers present an extensive helping of downloadable audio programs.Those stations are: KCBS San Francisco, WBBM Chicago, WBZ Boston and WWJ Detroit.
it is the first digital radio which can receive the main European radio systems: DAB, DRM, AM, FM/RDS and short wave
"Hybrid radios set for take-off
Text of editorial analysis by Ian Piper and Chris McWhinnie of BBC Monitoring Media Services at the International Broadcasting Convention in Amsterdam on 12 September
Radio listeners are soon to be offered a new type of radio which can play and record both digital and conventional radio. The new generation of such radio sets was demonstrated in Amsterdam at the IBC, International Broadcasting Convention, by the Digital Radio Mondiale, (DRM), consortium.
They were first unveiled last week at a Berlin consumer electronics show. Peter Senger, DRM chairman and chief of Germany's international radio station Deutsche Welle, said that it is the first digital radio which can receive the main European radio systems: DAB, DRM, AM, FM/RDS and short wave.
DRM is intended to replace long wave, medium wave and short wave broadcasts with a more reliable and higher-quality service for an audience which has largely moved to FM. AM is perceived as low quality because of interference and low fidelity.
The sample radio sets are the product of collaboration between the DRM consortium, Texas Instruments and RadioScape.
What started as discussions between international broadcasters is now almost ready for the general public.
"We have been pregnant for seven years and have now given birth", said John Sykes, the BBC World Service's digital radio project director.
Currently, 40 European broadcasters send more than 500 hours of programming daily using the system. The choice is limited but ever-increasing: Radio Luxembourg has just relaunched an English service using DRM.
The BBC World Service also started a DRM radio service for Europe and even Deutsche Welle has committed to the phasing-out out of conventional short wave in favour of DRM. There are opportunities for more stations. World Radio Network, which packages radio programmes from abroad is to trial a London-wide DRM service and regional services for Europe beamed from Bulgaria. "London will provide a rigorous test environment," said its managing director, Gary Edgerton. "If it works in London it will work anywhere."
DAB, DRM, AM, FM/RDS e onda curta. Quando chega o satélite?
"Arbitron Inc. and comScore Media Metrix have released the online radio ratings for July 2005.
These measured online networks reached 6,756,100 million listeners according to the July comScore Arbitron Online Radio Ratings.
Yahoo Music, American Online's AOL Radio Network, Microsoft's MSN Radio and WindowsMedia.com, and Live365 (operating as the Ronning Lipset Radio Network (RLR)) had an estimated 6,012,700 million listeners age 12 and older.
(Note: Cume audiences for the RLR Network and Clear Channel Online Music and Radio can not be added because doing so would count people who listen to more than one network twice. The cume estimates for all online listening eliminates this duplication.)
While persons 25-54 represent fifty-one percent of the total United States population, according to the July ratings, in online radio, this demo represents seventy-two percent of all listeners to these networks.
Skewing younger midday, while persons 18-49 represent fifty-five percent of the entire U.S. population, this demo represents eighty-five percent of all midday online listeners.
In addition, the RLR Network shows a 1.06 rating point in Women 25-34, the first time an Arbitron comScore rated online network has achieved a full rating point for a key demographic.
The July report of the comScore Arbitron Online Radio Ratings service rated America Online's AOL Radio Network; Yahoo! Music; Microsoft's MSN Radio and WindowsMedia.com; Clear Channel Online Music and Radio, and Live365 during an average broadcast week in the month of July.
Ratings for all services can be viewed below.
Persons 12+ Average Weekly Audience - July, 2005"
"Após um longo período de crescimento sustentado, a rádio enfrenta nos últimos anos uma diminuição da taxa de aumento das suas receitas.
Esta conclusão surge no âmbito do Relatório “Radio’s leading Indicator” publicado pela Arbitron que, além de fornecer uma análise da evolução da rádio nos Estados Unidos, apresenta uma avaliação dos impactos dos indicadores de audiência nas receitas do sector. Os detalhes acerca da metodologia podem ser consultados no documento.
Ao longo dos anos 90, a taxa de crescimento das receitas da rádio ultrapassou a da maioria dos restantes meios. Além disso, de 1998 a 2000, o negócio da rádio obteve um crescimento inédito, que foi consistente nas várias regiões do país.
No entanto, em 2001, este crescimento estagnou, consequência directa da recessão sentida em todas as áreas de negócio devido aos impactos do 11 de Setembro na economia americana. Apesar de ter recuperado da crise logo no final de 2002, as receitas da rádio têm crescido a ritmos cada vez mais lentos desde então.
Não obstante, a Arbitron conclui que a rádio, pelas suas características (nomeadamente a portabilidade e a capacidade de segmentação que proporciona) se adapta às necessidades actuais dos publicitários, prevendo assim uma aceleração da taxa de crescimento para breve.
Por outro lado, é de realçar que a conjugação dos dois principais indicadores de audiência de rádio nos Estados Unidos, a audiência média e o tempo médio de audiência, não aponta num sentido único para o futuro da rádio. Enquanto que o número de pessoas que se ligam à rádio permanece relativamente estável desde 1999 (cerca de 94% dos americanos ouve rádio a cada semana), existem sinais de que o tempo dispendido com a audição está a diminuir (em 1999, cerca de 21 horas por semana; em 2004, cerca de 19 horas e meia).
"Canadians are dancing in the streets as sales of MP3 players more than tripled in Canada between June 2004 and June 2005. According to the latest NPD Group researchon the consumer electronics market, growth of MP3 players far outpaced the gains by the second and third fastest growing categories, which were flat-screen televisions (LCD and plasma) and digital SLR cameras, respectively.
While the Apple iPod is the dominant player in this active category, there is opportunity for other brands to build market share, as research suggests that brand name is not the top purchasing driver for Canadian consumers. Pricing, followed closely by product features were deemed more important to consumers than brand name.
NPD research also identified two distinct consumer groups among Canadians: those buying MP3 players for themselves (47 per cent) and those purchasing the players for others as gifts (47 per cent). Those who purchased MP3 players for themselves were more likely to be male (63 per cent) between the ages of 18-34 (60 per cent). The top-ranked purchase drivers for this group were features (47 per cent) and pricing (45 per cent). Brand name influenced purchase decisions only 28 per cent of the time.
Consumers who purchased MP3 players as gifts tended to be female (54 per cent) between the ages of 35 and 54 (66 per cent). The primary recipients of the MP3 gifts were teenage children under 18. Like the previous consumer segment, good value at a good price were more important than name brand in the decision making process. Moreover, 17 per cent of consumers within this group did not remember the name of the brand they purchased and 30 per cent said that they would have purchased an alternative brand if the one they were looking for had not been available.
“The MP3 market has grown at an incredible rate over the last year, but with only 40 per cent of Canadian households in possession of a digital music player, this market is still in its early stages of development,” said Pam Buckley, Senior Account Manager, NPD Group. “With so many brand-neutral consumers buying MP3 players as gifts, there is a strong indication that additional marketing on the part of manufacturers would help educate this consumer group on the brands and attributes currently available.”
With such a dramatic increase in the number of MP3 players purchased in Canada over the last 12 months, research also indicates that online stores like iTunes or PureTracks will likely experience a corresponding increase in song downloads."
"Nos E.U.A surgiu um projecto que garante a máxima personalização musical para os seus utilizadores. O Pandora garante um serviço personalizado de rádio a partir do DNA de cada música. Para isso, usa um programa que pesquisa os gostos musicais de cada indivíduo ao mesmo tempo que, como anuncia, o DNA musical, descobrindo as características de cada música para estabelecer a melhor relação possível". Mais aqui
"According to a 2003 study by Arbitron/Edison Media Research the number of individuals who had ever listened to radio stations on the Internet increased from 6 percent in 1998 to 33 percent in 2003.3 But when asked about more regular online listening, only 10 percent had listened to a radio station online in the past month. Only 5 percent had listened in the past week.
What is the cause of this apparent disconnection between radio and the revolutions occurring in broadcast technology? One contributing factor is the decision made by some organizations to limit or prohibit alternative forms of broadcast-such as Internet streaming of audio and video--for their so-called over-the-air radio stations (those stations also available through traditional radio outlets and not Internet or satellite-only stations). As a result, the information and programming that attracted a listener to the station is simply not available online.
Another might be the attitude cited by some researchers that many listeners view their computer as simply another receiver, no different than the traditional radio that might already be sitting in their kitchen or on their desk. The listener with this mindset would most likely choose whichever mode of listening is most convenient to their location. Add to this the reality of the digital divide and the weight online streaming can put on computers and computer networks. Some organizations and corporations have instituted rules limiting or prohibiting the use of streaming websites in office settings while some at-home computer users are simply not sufficiently equipped to enjoy streamed audio in as clean a fashion as the traditional radio on their desk
É uma boa notícia:
(NYSE: S) customers will be the first wireless customers to enjoy SIRIUS Satellite Radio (NASDAQ: SIRI) programming via their mobile phones. Sprint today announced the availability of SIRIUS Music, which offers customers unlimited access to 20 commercial-free music channels, plus a channel devoted to exclusive artist interviews and performances. Sirius Music broadens Sprint's portfolio of music offerings and puts content from the biggest names in music right in the hands of millions of Sprint customers nationwide. Sirius Music is available on Sprint multimedia handsets under the Music & Radio category.
"SIRIUS offers some of the best commercial-free music available, and Sprint is proud to be the first and only wireless carrier to offer this exceptional and unique programming, " said Jeff Hallock, vice president, consumer product marketing and strategy for Sprint. "Sprint is providing customers with more choices for streaming music any day, everyday, on the one device they'll always have with them, their Sprint phone."
The SIRIUS Music channel includes a wide assortment of music, from Pop, Hip Hop/R&B, Rock and Country to Jazz, Blues, Broadway, Electronic and Dance. It also includes channels dedicated to individual decades, such as '60s & '70s/Vinyl – top tracks from classic rock's formative years; '70s & '80s/Rewind – classic rock's 2nd generation, from the late '70s onward; '80s Glam/Hair Nation – vintage rock from the big hair '80s; '80s Alt/First Wave – alternative rock's pioneering artists and sounds; and Alt Rock/Alt Nation – the best alt-rock of the '90s and today.
"SIRIUS has the best programming in all of radio," said Scott Greenstein, SIRIUS President of Entertainment and Sports. "With Sprint, we are making a portion of SIRIUS' unique content available, for the first time, to customers via their mobile phones. Since pioneering commercial-free music, SIRIUS has enjoyed becoming a regular part of our subscribers' day, and we look forward to inviting Sprint users to share in that experience."
Comentários (negativos) aqui: "But without unique and compelling content you can't effectively compete in the content business. Without unique and compelling content why should Sprint do a deal with you?It would be so much easier to go to SIRIUS
"If you think that terrestrial radio is dying, think again. HD radio, with multicasting and CD-quality sound, is growing by leaps and bounds according to last week's National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) Radio Show in Philadelphia. "Broadcasters are converting stations at a pace of more than one per day as they ramp up efforts," said Robert Struble, president and CEO of iBiquity Digital Corporation. "There are now stations from Philadelphia to Seattle broadcasting additional streams of content." HD radio allows for the multicasting of multiple channels on the same radio frequency. And commercial stations are not the only ones making the change. Not to be left behind, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) announced an agreement at the conference with iBiquity to accelerate the conversion of 400 stations nationwide. iBiquity is the sole developer and licenser of HD radio technology in the US. A total of 500 stations in the US are now capable of broadcasting in HD.
Satellite radio providers have been standing by to play taps for terrestrial radio for some time. The only problem is that traditional broadcasters have refused to play along, hoping the growth of HD radio will breathe new life into the medium. Now, the move by the CPB will help to push things further.
Most recently, a Washington DC-based NPR station broadcasted the confirmation hearings of Supreme Court appointee John Roberts via an HD multicast. But getting HD radio in front of the public is only half the battle, as consumers must ultimately accept the new technology. The kind of experimentation that is available through public radio can provide a soapbox, so to speak, for HD radio to be heard."
Story by news analyst Michael Bloom.
(via Digital Music News
General Motors Delivers Three Million XM Dashboards
General Motors has now produced more than three million vehicles with factory-installed XM Satellite Radio receivers. The landmark, announced last week, is another big win for XM, which has benefited immensely from the GM partnership. "Being the exclusive satellite radio partner of the world's largest automaker has been a key element of XM's success to date," said XM chief Hugh Panero. Now, the leading satellite company is positioned to benefit from a growing number of activations from new GM customers, many of whom will receive trial subscriptions. XM surpassed 4.4 million subscribers in July. GM became the first automaker to offer in-dash satellite radio capabilities in November, 2001.
The news follows a major announcement involving Ford, which will widen its factory support for receivers from XM competitor Sirius. That is part of a growing level of confidence from major manufacturers, who are steadily taking the plunge into factory installations of satellite receivers. That development is likely to create a major upward adoption curve, with a more casual consumer suddenly able to avoid complicated dashboard installations.
But some have urged caution, noting that competing formats like HD radio could wipe away satellite's gains by offering channels free of charge.
Already, BMW is nibbling on the trend by offering HD radio support in its upcoming 7-series super-luxury model.A Honda também
Esta é uma das perguntas que se vão fazer num congresso
a realizar em Londres, em 24 de Novembro.
"Can radio exist as a 'stand-alone" medium in ten years' time? What are the major threats to our traditional business, in a world of iPods, on-demand video, the Web and mobile television? Consultant and traveller Jonathan Marks has some non-British perspectives on tomorrow's media consumption. The audience is up to something..."
"How are music radio stations responding to the huge growth in availability of music? Is the traditional music policy/format still relevant in a world of iTunes, Napster, 40GB of music in your back pocket, online personalized juke boxes and on-demand radio listening? How should linear radio react to this seismic shift in the availability of music and content? What do our listeners expect from music radio now, and what can linear radio do to keep people tuned in?"
Os downloads e a musica digital são uma das maiores ameaças à rádio tal como a conhecemos.
A partir do momento em que se banalizar o acesso à música digital (que passa também pelo fim do CD), existirão milhões de leitores de mp3 (até em telemóveis) que serão concorrentes da rádio musical - por outras palavras, deixo de precisar da rádio para ouvir música.
Um recente artigo no suplemento Actual do Expresso (17/9/05) fala na tentativa da União Europeia de criar uma licença pan-europeia para a música on line: quem quiser operar um site de downloads deixa de lidar com a sociedade de autores do seu país e trata com outra entidade.
Algumas ideias do autor:
"A indústria musical só começará a recuperar terreno quando baixar o preço dos CD - ou seja, quando deixar de ser compensador o trabalho de "queimar" (isto é gravar) CD no computador", escreve LM Faria (pág. 16).
A revolução na música digital (do mercado da música em linha) está a ser atrasada pelo esforço das companhias emk bloquear na justiça sites de partilha de ficheiros. Os processos contra o Gorkster ou mesmo o Kazaa vão atrasar a evolução técnica pelo menos 10 anos.
A indústria do futuro é a indústria da música na internet.
ACTUALIZADO a 10/10/05:
"Pan-European Licensing Process Moves Closer to Reality
The European Commission (EC) will next week recommend a pan-European licensing model for online music distribution, but it is leaving the implementation to local governments and agencies. In a speech at the Creative Economy Conference in London on Friday, EC director Jacqueline Minor recommended the new proposals. She called the current system “nineteenth century,” irrelevant to the borderless 21st century internet, while stressing the need for the pan-European approach. “It is based on the premise that territory-by-territory management of copyright clearance is too cumbersome and too costly,” Minor said. “It is not efficient for content users and it does not serve the interests of right-holders who want their content disseminated as widely as possible. In a territory-by-territory model, the weakest link in the chain will hold up the quick and effective roll-out of their latest creative content.” The Commission’s recommendations will soon be dispatched to member states and relevant groups.
The progress was welcomed by many, though critics feel that a low-powered "recommendation" does not offer enough backbone. Wes Himes, director of the European Digital Media Association, an industry group whose members include Apple, Amazon, RealNetworks and others, questioned the approach. “We felt that there should be a competitive mechanism by which pan-European companies can obtain pan-European licenses for online exploitation,” Himes stated. “This doesn't achieve this. It only exerts a small pressure on member states to do so." Himes blames national rights management authorities for lobbying to have Europe’s proposals “watered-down”. In July, a release from UK rights management body MCPS-PRS Alliance typified the trend to protect local agency decision-making power. “There will ultimately be consolidation and streamlining of the licensing activities of the collecting societies in Europe, and we are supportive of this providing it leads to the value of our members’ rights being maximized,” the organization stated.
Story by news analyst Jonny Evans."
A questão é mais ou menos simples: vão triunfar os aparelhos que concentrarem diversos sistemas ou aparelhos singulares, como os iPods? Diversos leitores de Mp3 são muito mais do que isso, já têm sintonizadores FM ou até máquina fotográfica.
A Apple resiste a incorporar outros sistemas no iPod. Mas fala-se que pode lançar um telemóvel iPod. Será o triunfo da convergência tecnológica e digital?"Apple Executives Question Device Convergence
While device convergence discussions permeated the hallways at CTIA in San
Francisco, a pair of Apple executives recently questioned the logic of the
all-in-one approach. "Is there a toaster that can also brew coffee?"
questioned Apple senior vice president Jon Rubenstein in a recent interview
with German site Berlin Online. "Many companies believe in convergence, but
I personally do not," continued Rubinstein. "It's important to have
specialized devices." That is certainly the strategy behind the successful
line of iPods, though mobile manufacturers and carriers are hoping to
challenge the early Apple lead in portable music.
While the vibe on the ROKR was downbeat at the wireless conference, there
has been some chatter that Apple is developing a more impressive, iPod-like
smartphone. But so far, both Rubenstein and vice president Phil Schiller,
also in the interview, seemed to be taking and wait-and-see approach. Both
agreed that the "the Motorola phone is no replacement for the iPod," and
looked forward to the response on the ROKR before investing heavy energies
into the mobile market. The interview follows some very pro-convergent
comments by Motorola chief Ed Zander, who questioned the relevance of the
newly-released iPod nano."
(fonte: Digital Music News
Harry Helms, do Future of Radio
, acha que o "cellphonecasting" se apresenta como uma ameaça bem mais real para a rádio hertziana do que os transmissores por satélite.
O que é o cellphonecasting? è, de uma forma muito simplificada, um sistema que permite trazer a televisão para os telemóveis.
Há outros sistemas, mas com problemas. Este, diz ele, parece ser ter "delivering high-performance, low power, real-time digital broadcast television to mobile handsets".
um excerto da Reuters ("Music biz explores wireless frontier
"And so it begins. Wireless operators and record companies are starting to let mobile subscribers buy and download full songs over wireless networks directly to mobile phones capable of storing and playing music.
As a big first step, Apple Computer and Motorola have partnered to create an iTunes-compatible mobile phone, dubbed the ROKR, capable of storing 100 songs and currently offered by Cingular.
Will the result revolutionize both industries or just be another wireless hype machine met with tepid response and consumer apathy?
"We're heading into areas where there is no market research," says Andrew Seybold, a veteran wireless industry consultant. "The only way we're going to find out what consumers will buy is to try various things and see what sticks."
The opportunity is clear. There are 180 million mobile phones in the United States, most of which can be used to access the Internet and buy products with charges added to the user's monthly phone bill.
The result is an on-demand, impulse-buy capability accessible to all age ranges that the still-struggling music industry sees as a lifeline out of the doldrums. Wireless carriers, meanwhile, hope access to music will be the application that compels subscribers to migrate to the new high-speed networks they have spent billions on developing."
"The attack is arriving in the form of satellite radio and its portable receivers, online niche and genre "broadcasts" from music services (MSN, Real, Launch), and even homegrown podcasts. Now the radio industry is preparing its counterattack, and it's twofold: One part is forward-leaning, the other completely retro. The forward-leaning part is the growing availability of podcasts from commercial and nonprofit radio stations. The latter have made the best use of these time-shifting portable audio packages. NPR, for example, offers most of its popular programs as podcasts. It's a great way to let your audience listen when and where they want. But, as far as I can tell, podcasts are of little use to commercial, news, and Top 40 music stations. For them, the retro approach is taking hold. Station after station is reintroducing Internet radio. Perhaps you remember the first Internet-radio boom
excerto de PC Magazine
"Virgin Mobile Delivers First Music-Focused Phone
Virgin Mobile has recently delivered its first music phone, a collaborative effort with Kyocera Wireless. The new Slider Sonic comes with a 32MB microSD card, stereo headphones and a USB cable to port PC collections. The device also functions as a camcorder and camera, and supports an optional game controller. Those extra features will play well with a very young, targeted audience, which Virgin Mobile also attracts with its pre-paid options. Power music listeners can upgrade to a 512MB microSD card, while also playing music through a stereo system using a 3.5mm cord. "There are two things [Virgin Mobile users] don't leave home without: their mobile phone and their portable music players," said Howard Handler, chief marketing officer of Virgin Mobile USA. "With the Slider Sonic we've merged music and technology and packaged it in a sophisticated communications device." The phone retails for 9.99.
(Digital Music News
)E rádio FM? Não!
"Al referirnos a la radio virtual podemos decir que queremos indicar una radio cuya existencia real en cuanto a personas y equipamiento técnico es reemplazada por personas y equipos de existencia virtual, es decir no real. En los últimos años la investigación se ha orientado a construir sistemas que poco a poco van completando la tecnología necesaria para producir la radio virtual.
Esto no se corresponde en absoluto con la idea que hasta el presente todos tenemos de la radio, pero es una demostración evidente de la capacidad de los sistemas de inteligencia artificial que se están aplicando ya con éxito en este campo."
Excerto de um texto de Aurora García na revista electrónica Razon y Palabra
"Roku has introduced SoundBridge Radio,a wireless (Wi-Fi) music system. SoundBridge Radio is a device that combines stereo speakers with a subwoofer, AM/FM radio, alarm, Internet radio and digital music streaming features.
Roku has taken its original SoundBridge network music player (which won 2004 and 2005 CES Innovations Awards) a step further. It lets users access traditional AM/FM radio along with their digital music library using simple and familiar radio controls.
A few simple buttons for presets, scan, and source select make digital music accessible. Other features include a SD/MMC card slot and a volume-ramping alarm that wakes users to digital music or a choice of seven alarms. It also grabs podcasts
Transistor kills the radio star?
Um blogue de suporte a uma investigação sobre a rádio do futuro - ou o que quer que ela se venha a chamar...
Textos de referência