Se muestran los artículos pertenecientes al tema 5.3 Modulação.
«O ministro italiano das telecomunicações, Paolo Gentiloni, anunciou que o apagão analógico das emissões televisivas no país será adiado quatro anos em relação à meta prevista (passando de 2008 para 2012), considerando que o prazo "não era realista", segundo cita o site do El Mundo.Gentiloni fez saber ainda que o Governo italiano vai aprovar um regulamento que vai obrigar os distribuidores a vender apenas televisores adaptados às novas emissões de Televisão Digital Terrestre (TDT) a partir do próximo ano. Recorde-se que 2012 é o prazo limite estabelecido pela Comissão Europeia para o encerramento das emissões analógicas em todos estados membros.» (fonte: «Apagão analógico adiado em Itália», Meios e Publiicdade, 3 de Outubro de 2007, por Maria João Morais)
«According to an article in the Sunday Telegraph newspaper, commercial radio companies in the United Kingdom are looking to set a firm end date for analog radio. The industry body RadioCentre was expected to approach the British broadcast regulator, Ofcom, about setting a shutoff date for analog radio that could be as early as 2015. An analog shutdown would mirror the transition path being followed by the television industry, which will see an end to terrestrial analog broadcasting in 2012. There is a concern, according to the Telegraph report, that only a firm analog shutoff date will ensure continued investment and development of digital radio, although there are political concerns about making millions of analog receivers obsolete»
fonte: «Call for 2015 End to Analog Radio in UK», RWOnline, 6/07/07
According to the latest study by Arbitron and Edison Media Research, The Infinite Dial 2007: Radio’s Digital Platforms, consumers are continuing to explore radio in all its digital platforms—Online Radio, Satellite Radio, HD Radio™, and audio podcasting—while maintaining a broad use of AM/FM radio.
* AM/FM radio continues to have a big impact on people’s lives. The study asked consumers to rate the impact different digital audio platforms has on their lives. Nearly one in five (19 percent) consumers said radio has a big impact on their lives; ranking second only to mobile phones (35 percent) as the audio platform/device that has the biggest impact on the lives of its users.
«Contrary to commonly held beliefs, people who listen to digital radio platforms do not spend less time listening to AM/FM radio. Some industry insiders assume that people who use new digital platforms listen less to AM/FM radio. Once again, we find that people who use digital audio platforms do NOT listen less to AM/FM radio. Among respondents in our study, the average time spent listening per day to AM/FM radio was 2 hours, 37 minutes compared with 2 hours, 45 minutes a day among those who use radio's new digital platforms (listened to online radio in the last month, or subscribe to satellite radio, or have ever listened to an audio podcast). Despite the growth reported in alternatives, such as the iPod, online radio and satellite radio, the time spent listening to AM/FM radio by users of digital radio platforms has not changed versus a year ago.» (pag 13). «Radio sees the most impact on listening from iPod/digital audio player owners age 11-24. Among 12-17s and 18-24s, 18 percent in each age group say they are spending less time with over-the-air radio due to time spent with an iPodlportable MP3 player»
Mark Ramsey diz o óbvio, mas explica-o bem:
«The fact is that time doesn't expand, folks. As listeners have more options for their audio entertainment time those new options will unquestionably crowd out listening to more established options. Isn't this exactly why time spent listening (an Arbitron measure, not an opinion survey one) has declined over the past few years - especially among younger demos where such audio entertainment options are most used? Don't believe everything you read. (...)Three things:
First, change always comes at the margin. So the conclusion that most folks DON'T do something obscures the obvious trend - that more folks DO do something. As the study notes: "Thirty percent of Americans age 12 and older own an iPod or other brand of portable MP3 player; this figure has risen from 22 percent in 2006 and 14 percent in 2005. More than half (54 percent) of those age 12-17 own a digital audio player." It is inconceivable that this statistic will not impact radio listening and Arbitron's own TSL data (along with my research data) indicate that these demos are the most at risk.
Second, listeners do not consciously consider trends in their listening so it is invalid to ask such questions and make sweeping conclusions about the impact - or lack thereof - of new audio options on radio listening. Let the results - the behaviors - speak for themselves. And those behaviors are clearly recorded in Arbitron diaries and via PPM.
Third, as I read these stats - and even if I believe in their veracity - for every two iPod owners who say they're not listening less to radio, about one says they ARE listening less.
When mp3 player owners comprise thirty percent of the audience, that should give us all pause.» («"Relax, iPods don't hurt Radio"», 20/04/07, Hear2.0)
«Though certainly not the waves of new licenses offered a decade and a half ago when market liberalization ended State broadcasting monopolies, the consistent interest in FM broadcasting shows that both regulators and broadcasters see considerable value in the terrestrial analogue spectrum. Of course, regional differences exist: fewer new licenses offered in Western and Northern Europe, far more in the central and eastern countries»
a verdade é que:
«Regulators in Spain and France are moving toward optimizing the entire FM spectrum. Last summer the Spanish government opened about 1000 FM frequencies. Regional regulators or governments will then determine which will be reallocated to existing broadcasters and which will be offered to new licensees. The Consell de l'Audiovisual de Catalunya (CAC) will offer about 100 FM frequencies and began the process in October. “Many stations actually were operating without license, under different degrees of piracy, so a large part of this new licenses are intended to give legal coverage to what already exists,” said CAC’s Joan Botella. At the end of 2005 France’s Conseil Supériér de l’Audiovisual (CSA) announced plans to reallocate 57% of all FM frequencies used by private broadcasters, about 1600 frequencies, set to expire between 2006 and 2008. Rolling region by region over two years, new authorizations will be announced beginning in spring 2007. Most will be given to existing operators with provisions in place to protect community, not-for-profit stations. The only slow-down detected is in Scandinavia. Swedish regulator Radio- och TV – Verket (RTVV) has not licensed new FM stations in the last year and “has no plans to allocate new ones,” according to spokesperson Eva Bengtsson. Sweden, like the rest of the Nordic countries, is moving quickly to digital platforms. There is no slow-down in new FM broadcast allocations across Central and Eastern Europe. From Latvia to Cyprus, regulators are rapidly opening new license allocations, almost exclusively for either private, commercial or community radio`»
fonte: «More FM Radio Allocations and Licenses in Europe»,Followthemedia.com, Michael Hedges - January 3, 2007
«Radio broadcasts on medium wave will end within a few years if a powerful coalition of commercial radio interests has its way.Ofcom, commercial radio's regulatory body, will launch a debate in the coming months on the future of radio. Many predict that it will result in the end of AM broadcasts as we have known them since the days of the Home Service and Light Programme. The growth of digital broadcasts, either on radio, over the internet or through digital television, has left commercial AM broadcasts with only 3.8 per cent of the national audience this year. While the BBC remains on the sidelines — the vast bulk of its weekly Radio Five Live audience of 5.7 million still listens on AM — leading figures in the commercial sector are determined to sound the death knell of medium wave. The commercial stations are having to face up to the dwindling numbers tuning in to AM stations as people opt for FM broadcasts or, increasingly, the higher quality of digital broadcasts. "The current AM licences are up for renewal in 2011 and 2012," an Ofcom spokesman said yesterday. "The question we have to address is whether or not these stations will be commercially viable by then." Fru Hazlitt, the chief executive of Virgin Radio, is an outspoken critic of AM. "We pay huge amounts of money to Ofcom for the AM licence," she said. "Within the next year or two we should switch it off. It just isn't worth it." Andy Duncan, the chief executive of Channel 4, predicted that, over the next five to 10 years, AM and FM listening would wither away. Capital Radio bosses have also been calling on the Government to set a date to switch off both AM and FM. Not everyone agrees, however, that AM is a dead duck. Emap, whose Magic AM has been relaunched nationwide, believes there is still a place for medium wave. Ofcom said it hoped to begin a wide consultation over the future of AM. "There could be much more effective uses for this spectrum — it could be used for community radio," the spokesman said. "The growth of digital at the cost of analogue cannot be ignored."»
fonte: Daily Telegraph, «Wave farewell to AM radio, say experts» By David Sapsted, 30/12/06
«Ofcom today signalled the eventual demise of FM radio after concluding that other services such as mobile television could make more efficient use of the spectrum. In a discussion document on the future of radio, the media regulator said that it would also look at whether AM spectrum could be released for other uses; if radio stations should adhere to rigid formats and whether changes should be made to ownership rules. The potential phasing out of FM radio has been pushed to the forefront of the agenda following the rapid growth in digital radio. Ofcom said that new technologies such as mobile TV, further digital radio or data services meant there were now other potential uses for the spectrum. "We have no immediate plans to switch off FM radio and would not do so without fully considering the impact on consumers, but in the long term other services may make more efficient use of the spectrum used by existing FM radio services and may provide a better consumer outcome," the regulator said. "This could mean an end to the broadcasting on FM of those commercial and BBC services that are also available on digital." However, it also added that the spectrum could be reviewed to include a different range of FM radio services, such as more community outlets (...).»
« Pop2Life is in talks with Apple Computer to provide a text-messaging link that connects iTunes to dozens of terrestrial radio stations in major urban markets in the United States. The New York City-based startup, which lists itself as a marketing and promotions agency, recently introduced P1 SMS, a text-messaging system that allows listeners to purchase songs they hear on the radio. When a song comes on the radio, listeners can text a five-digit trigger word, like the station’s call letters. They then receive a menu of items related to the song, such as full-track downloads, ringtones, concert tickets, CDs, and in the future, videos. Listeners set up M-Wallet accounts with the radio stations. Every time they buy something, whether it’s music content on demand or a sponsor’s product, M-Wallet charges the credit card they have on file.
“There are a lot of advertiser and sponsorship opportunities involved with P1 SMS, particularly radio advertisers and record labels,” said Eric Murphy, president of three-and-a-half-year-old Pop2Life. “The response to the text message can be branded by advertisers, but the real revolutionary part of the system is the M-Wallet piece.” (...)fonte: «Texting Radio’s iTunes Groove», Red Herring, 7/7/06
«travel host will broadcast a live, interactive two-hour radio show from a commercial jetliner, with 15 kHz fidelity»
Curioso: numa altura em que a internet permite ouvir a rádio em todo o lado, a NPR sai pela primeira vez dos EUA, ganhando uma licença para emitir em Berlim (em inglês, evidentemente).
Será um caso isolado ou o início de uma tendência?
"National Public Radio (NPR) – the domestic American public radio network – was granted an FM license (104.1) to broadcast in English, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This is the first radio license granted to NPR in Europe. Indeed, it’s the first radio license held by NPR, a network provider, not station owner, in the US." (Tale of Three Berlin FM Frequencies, Follow the Media, Michael Hedges - December 5, 2005)
"Listening to AM/FM radio is returning to pre-2004 levels in many cases," reads the study. "Interestingly, terrestrial radio returning to former high-water marks seems to be the result of both the medium's lower commercial load policies plus a growing segment of MP3 users who, after some time immersed in their new technology toy, become fatigued with their time spent with the MP3 player and return to terrestrial radio among other sources of audio entertainment."
Sendo o espectro radiofónico um bem escasso e rigidamente administrado pelo poder político, deve fazer alguma confusão aos gestores das rádios o abandono da emissão em AM (concretamente a Onda Média). São frequências nacionais desocupadas, emissores abandonados, dinheiro perdido.
Quando, recentemente, apareeceu uma tecnologia que digitaliza a Onda Média (o DRM) uma luz de esperança abriu-se. E é disso que fala uma notícia de hoje do Jornal de Negócios ("Media Capital já planeava rádio de informação antes da entrada da Prisa" (assinada por Daniel Vaz, pág. 39). Uma rádio de informação em AM Digital.
O problema é outro: os consumidores de rádio em Portugal (ao contrário do Brasil, de Espanha ou dos EUA) perderam o hábito de ir à Amplitude Modulada/OM, utilizando apenas as memórias das rádios em FM.
lançar um novo projecto em OM é demasiado arriscado, muito mais um projecto caro como é uma rádio de informação - é ainda mais dramático do que lançar um canal no cabo e ele ficar para além da 20ª posição, porque, apesar de tudo, funciona no mesmo "espectro", controlado pelo mesmo comando.
vai ser muito difícil recuperar a emissão em AM em Portugal.
Enquanto em Portugal (e em Espanha), a regra de utilização do FM é o tudo ao monte e fé em Deus, fazendo com que uma rádio nacional como a A1 tenha frequências entre o 87,7 (Beja) e o 103,8 (Elvas), na GB, a coisa tem outro nível...
The FM band is approximately divided up as follows:
87.6 — 88.0 MHz reserved for restricted service licences (RSLs)
88.1 — 94.6 MHz BBC Radios 2, 3 and 4
94.7 — 96.1 MHz mainly BBC local radio
96.1 — 97.6 MHz mainly commercial local services
97.7 — 99.8 MHz BBC Radio 1
99.9 — 101.9 MHz Classic FM plus some commercial regional & local services
102.0 — 103.5 MHz commercial local services
103.6 — 104.9 MHz mainly BBC local radio
105.0 — 106.8 MHz commercial regional & local services
106.6 — 107.9 MHz commercial local services - typically smaller-scale servicesConventional (analogue) services appear on two wavebands. ‘FM’ (sometimes called ‘VHF’) and ‘AM’ (sometimes called ‘MW’ or ‘MF’). On FM, different types of stations are grouped into certain parts of the band, but on AM, they are more evenly spread. Services from neighbouring countries can also be picked up on FM and AM. In darkness hours, signals come in from all over Europe on the AMband. Some radios also have other AM bands called ‘long-wave’ and ‘short-wave’.
On the AM waveband, between 531 - 1602 kHz is generally used for Ofcom licensed services.licensed services.
A emissão hertziana é feita no sistema de modulação - que pode assumir uma destas duas vertentes: ou é em frequência (FM) ou em amplitude (AM).
A Onda Média, Onda Curta e Onda Longa são comprimentos de onda, ou seja, as emissões são em amplitude modulada (AM), da mesma forma que o FM é a frequência modulada.
Na lista de temas do segundo choque, a coisa fica assim:
5.1 Digital (com DAB, HD, DRM e sistema japonês)
5.3 Emissão em Modulação (FM/AM)
Transistor kills the radio star?
Um blogue de suporte a uma investigação sobre a rádio do futuro - ou o que quer que ela se venha a chamar...
Textos de referência