Se muestran los artículos pertenecientes al tema 5.1 Digital.
«GCap Media's outgoing chief executive Ralph Bernard has spoke up about his disappointment in the lack of commitment from Ofcom about the switch-off date for analogue radio. He has urged the Government to set a date to enable broadcasters to "make a business plan that makes sense".»
«My argument here is that at the moment we are still as far from the analog shutdown of radio as it was thought back in late 1990’s: it will take at least 10 to 15 years from the present day. Although the EU has recently proposed that TV broadcasting in its member states should be switched in to digital by 2012, there are at least two reasons, why the process with radio is probably going to take longer time (Hedges 2005a; EU 2005; IHT 2005; Coonan 2005). ¹ First of all, those countries (Germany, Netherlands, Norway) which already have set a date for the digital switchover of radio, have scheduled it to happen four to seven years after the supposed digital switchover of TV. (WorldDAB 2005b; Marcuslund 2005a; Marcuslund 2005b) This is probably a realistic approach. (...) The second reason is that probably none of the European countries will to be able to meet their official deadlines for the TV digital switchover. At least according to the Informa Telecom & Media’s recent report, this will be the case. The report predicts also that some countries, like Italy and Spain will not be able to shut down their analog television networks before 2020. (...) It is more than likely that analog FM radio is an important part of the future of radio broadcasting at least 10 years from now. FM radio station is relatively inexpensive to build and operate, and this is why it suits well also for small-scale radio. The number of existing analogue FM receivers is huge, their price is low and the sound quality on FM is good enough for the majority of people. In addition, services on analog radio are usually free of direct charge and easy to use. (Ala-Fossi & Stavitsky 2003, 71; Ala-Fossi 2005, 33, 44-47; Coonan 2005)» (Ala-Fossi, 24-26)
«1 In the US, the Congress is willing to shut off analog TV already at the end of 2006, four months after concluding the currently ongoing channel selection process. In Japan, there is a law according to which analog TV broadcasting will end in July 2011. (McAdams 2005; Hara 2003)»
«Twelve million people in the UK are listening to the radio digitally, new audience figures have revealed. More than 25% per cent of all listeners regularly tune in to stations using digital radio, TV or the internet. And listening to digital-only stations has risen from less than a million in 2003 to six million in 2007, according to radio industry analysts Rajar. Overall radio listening figures have also risen, with 91% of the UK population now listening to the radio. The number of people tuning in rose by 600,000 during the last three months, Rajar said. Commercial radio has registered its highest listening figures in four years with a regular audience of 32 million, up more than one million compared to the same period in 2006.»
fonte: «Digital radio draws 12m listeners
(http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6948970.stm)», BBCnews, 16/08/07
«If news continues to be such a big part of traditional commercial radio’s appeal, does it hold the same sway in the new audio formats? That is harder to answer. For now, the data on newer audio formats — satellite radio, Internet radio and podcasts — do not specify the type of content people tune in to. The total number of people and the time they spend listening to news is expected to become measurable with Arbitron’s Portable People Meter starting in 2007. But a survey released by the Pew Center for the People and the Press does provide some insight into how many people are using the new audio devices to access news content, and how frequently. The data suggest that the devices are not being widely used for consumption of news, not yet anyway. Only 12% of the Internet population has ever downloaded any kind of podcast on an MP3 player, and only 2%9 has done it for a news podcast, according to Pew data.
News on Mobile Devices
Source: Pew Research Center for the People and the Press’ biennial consumption survey, “Online Papers Modestly Boost Newspaper Readership,” July 30, 2006
But of MP3/iPod owners (25.5% of the population), 8% say they download news podcasts to their MP3 players.10 Though that is a small percentage, Pew survey data show that about a quarter of the news podcast downloaders report doing so daily»
« Research firm In-stat says that the conversion from analog radio to digital radio is well under way around the world and gaining momentum rapidly. According to recent research from the company, the worldwide market for digital radio receivers will grow from 5 million units in 2005, to almost 25 million unit shipments in 2010. The study, More Consumers to Tune Into Digital Radio in 2007, cites the primary factors of the expected growth are falling receiver prices, an increase in the amount of compelling digital programming, significant boosts in promotion and advertising of digital radio, and enhanced functionality of digital radio receivers. The report also notes that digital radio is still an emerging market with opportunities for retailers, broadcasters, automobile OEMs and receiver manufacturers. In-stat notes that in 2006, 73 percent of respondents to an In-Stat U.S. consumer survey were aware of HD Radio on some level. In-stat also notes that digital radio is outpacing analog radio in Europe and especially in the United Kingdom.»
fonte: «Digital Radio Worldwide Set for Growth in 2007», Beradio/Radio Currents Online, 07/01/07
Mais (que confirma que estamos perante uma realidade anglo-americana):
«The number of consumers switching from analog to digital radios is expected to gain momentum worldwide, driving unit shipments to nearly 25 million in 2010, a market research firm says. That number compares with 5 million digital radio receivers shipped last year, In-Stat said. The major factors behind the expected increase in demand will be falling prices, more and better programming, significant boosts in advertising and promotions, and better features in digital receivers. Digital radio proponents say reception is superior to conventional broadcasting and enables a variety of "data services," including text-based information, such as artist name, song title, weather alerts, school closings, etc., scrolled across a receiver's display. A recent market study by In-Stat also found that 73% of U.S. respondents to a consumer survey were aware of high-definition radio on some level. In Europe, primarily the United Kingdom, digital audio broadcasting is the pervasive form of radio, with digital receiver shipments expected to outpace analog shipments this year.»
«Experts from both broadcast vendor system proponents and the consumer electronics industry will be on hand to discuss new DAB (Eureka 147) standards, DMB technology, DVB-h, DRM+ and HD Radio»
fonte: «Swiss Radio Conference Will Address Digital Choice», Digital Radio Update, 22/11/06,
Por falar nisso, aqui está um receptor muito completo (multi-standard):
«Radioscape is now shipping it RS500 module, which allows receiver manufacturers to provide a broad range of multi-standard functionality with the addition of a single package. RS 500 functionality will include DAB (Band-III and L-Band), DRM (LW, MW and SW), FM-RDS AM (LW, MW and SW) including AMSS, automatic alternative frequency switching (AFS), EPG (DAB), SDCARD Recording (DAB/DRM) and playback of MP3/WMA files»
«Classical music fans are far more digitally savvy than most think, according to a recent research finding from Gramophone magazine. More than one-third of classical fans access music from PCs, digital radio receivers, internet-based radio, digital television, and portable MP3 players, according to the publication. Meanwhile, more than half have ripped at least some of their CD-based classical collection, according to the finding. "Far from being fuddy-duddy traditionalists, classical music fans are embracing new technology as never before," the magazine noted.»
fonte Digital Music News, Classical Music Fans Show Digital Savvy, Legal Habits»
Clear Channel, which has more than 300 stations broadcasting digitally, is busily developing niche formats — a package of everything from audio cues to programming and playlists — that stations can use to create extra HD channels. The 80 already devised, with 50 more planned, include The Pride (for gay listeners), Workout (for exercisers) and Kisspanic (Spanish language Top 40). All also are available for purchase by radio companies.
Some consumer advocates say that's the wrong approach. HD Radio is becoming "a mirror image of what Sirius and XM have done," says Michael Bracy, policy director for the Future of Music Coalition. "There's no shortage of national platforms. The way to compete is to be live (as opposed to pre-recorded) and local."
Though he sees profit in the long term, Hogan expects to lose money on HD until about 2009. It costs a station about 0,000 to add the technology, and stations in the Alliance have agreed to keep the new channels ad-free until 2007.
Hogan's also excited about developing digital profit potential beyond radio. Clear Channel's 1,145 websites attract about 8 million unique visitors each month. Some provide videos of live performances, interviews with emerging artists and podcasts. In January, most Clear Channel Radio sites began offering on-demand viewings of music videos from Universal, Warner Music, and EMI.
The company also provides sports and music programming to cellphones. And it plans a news, traffic and weather service.
While some of the online and cellular ventures make money, Hogan still considers them investments in his plan to make the radio business cool again.»
fonte: USA TODAY, CEO Hogan may be hero to Clear Channel Radio, 19/7/06
Resultados de um estudo sobre o desenvolvimento da rádio digital em França, nomeadamente em termos de plataformas de distribuição (Obercom):
«Por um lado, diversos operadores apoiam a distribuição da rádio digital através das redes terrestres existentes (FM, AM). Afirmam que tal solução permite uma digitalização rápida do sector, assim como uma iniciação do mercado. Além disso, este tipo de plataforma não implica mudanças em termos de hábitos de consumo nos indivíduos. No entanto, os opositores desta sugestão enfatizam o facto dela não permitir o enriquecimento da oferta, tanto em termos de diversidade, como em termos de uma possível combinação com dados associados de vídeo e texto.
Assim, a distribuição de rádio digital através das redes terrestres existentes afirma-se mais como uma primeira etapa da digitalização, do que propriamente como um modelo a ser seguido.
Por outro lado, algumas entidades defendem a distribuição da rádio digital através do sistema DAB, numa rede dedicada. No entanto, também esta proposta apresenta inconvenientes, a saber: a norma de compressão Eurêka 147 estará brevemente ultrapassada; a não atribuição da banda III para o desenvolvimento da rádio digital DAB constitui uma séria desvantagem; e a difusão em DAB através da banda L não permite a cobertura de zonas rurais isoladas.
Também é sugerida a distribuição da rádio digital numa rede mista terrestre/satélite. Este modelo, relativamente bem aceite pelos intervenientes do sector, apresenta contudo limites. Por um lado, os elevados custos associados não permitem a adesão das rádios locais e regionais, o que implica um retrocesso em termos de diversidade dos conteúdos. Por outro lado, é argumentado que este modelo económico será inadaptado ao sector da rádio na Europa de Oeste, muito habituada à gratuitidade do acesso. Por fim, o desenvolvimento de uma rede mista deste tipo conduz a um monopólio em termos de distribuidores de serviço.
A distribuição da rádio digital em redes digitais não dedicadas exclusivamente à rádio é um outro modelo defendido, sendo o que conta com um maior número de apoiantes. Entre as vantagens desta opção conta-se o facto de permitir um real aumento da diversidade da oferta, assim como permite a entrada de novos actores no mercado. Além disso, não implica a compra de dispositivos específicos, podendo ser recebida através da televisão digital terrestre, e permite alcançar todas as zonas geográficas. Não obstante estas vantagens, fica a dúvida se este modelo conseguirá subsistir sem alternativas complementares»
Dominique Baudis, President of the French regulatory authority, CSA, told delegates at a conference in Paris this week that there is a clear consensus in France for digital radio, adding that the current discussion is not about whether to proceed with digital radio, but how. (...) in place since July 2004, the CSA launched a consultation in 2005 to which it received 50 responses from the French media industry. All were positive on the need for France to embrace a digital radio future.
(texto total: «17/02/2006 - Digital radio in France is "inevitable"»; o texto original aqui)
«With digital audiences still way too small to justify spending money on DJs, many stations fill their side channels with uninterrupted music. Even after the radios become more common, most stations intend to run their second channels as jukeboxes, with little or no personalities, local news or other community connections.
Digital channels do promise to restore some musical variety to free radio. For all the innovation, however, radio has not yet found a way back to the 1960s and '70s, when it provided popular fare for a mass audience on AM and more esoteric programming for minority interests on FM. Until radio finds a way to create a new form of that model, it will continue to lose out to consumers' desire to explore the infinite sounds of the digital world.»
(Rediscover the serendipity of radio, By Marc Fisher, The Washington Post, Saturday, February 4, 2006 - 12:00 AM) (dica: netFM)
«Music lovers are calling on broadcasters to improve sound quality on digital radio after complaints that it is worse than traditional FM. Critics say the BBC and commercial broadcasters have crammed so many new stations into their digital transmissions that sound quality has been badly compromised. While the difference is barely noticeable on kitchen radios, owners of expensive hi-fi systems say digital sounds tinny and muffled.
About five million people listen to digital radio. The sets, usually costing between £70 and £130, are easier to tune, give access to dozens more stations and display channel and programme information. Many people also believe sound quality is better. But while digital transmissions have none of the hiss or crackle found on traditional radio, a vocal minority of hi-fi buffs argue that the sound quality is much worse than FM.»
MAIS: «The quality of a signal is measured by its "bit rate" - the number of pieces of information transmitted each second. A typical CD, for instance, has a rate of 256,000 bits per second (kbps). The best quality digital radio station is Radio 3 which usually transmits at 192 kbps. But Radio 1, 2, 4 and 6 are broadcast at 128kbps, while Radio Five Live is broadcast at 80kbps. To accommodate the part-time station BBC Five Live Sports Extra during sports events, Radio 4 drops to 80kbps and becomes mono, while Radio 3 reduces to 160kbps. Steven Green, a music journalist who campaigns about digital radio quality says such rates are "noticeably" worse than FM. "On a small portable, it is not an issue," he said. "But if you have very good FM reception on a hi-fi system, digital radio is worse." Radio 1 and 2 listeners suffered most. Music lacked definition and had a compressed dynamic range. "It's pretty nasty. I don't listen to digital radio."In analogue radio each station has a dedicated frequency. But with digital, several stations are transmitted together on one frequency in a package called a multiplex. There is a trade-off between the number of stations that can be broadcast on each multiplex, and the bit rate. When the BBC began its tests of digital radio in the 1990s, it broadcast all its major stations at 192kbps. But in order to introduce new channels - such as 1Xtra, Radio 6, Radio 7 and BBC Asian Network - it reduced the sound quality across the board.»
Mr Green says the BBC gains quantity at the expense of quality and is petitioning the corporation to raise bit rates through his website www.digitalradiotech.co.uk.
A BBC spokesman said: "The BBC has a responsibility to serve all its diverse audiences and we believe we have found a balance between launching new services and broadcasting in good sound quality.
"We believe we are providing good sound quality on all our digital radio networks and recent research bears this out. The majority of people are very satisfied with the sound quality with around 95 per cent of digital radio listeners rating it 'excellent', 'good' or 'satisfied'."
Mandy Green, of the Digital Radio Development Bureau, said the industry no longer promoted digital on sound quality. Only a small fraction of listeners were unhappy. Clare Newsome, the editor of What Hi-Fi? Sound and Vision, said: "If you are replacing a 20-year-old kitchen radio with digital, the bit rate is irrelevant."
Telegraph, "Digital radio sound 'is worse than old FM', By David Derbyshire Consumer Affairs Editor, (Filed: 16/01/2006)
Pergunta a Radio Monitor da Billboard: "Is DMB Radios’s Next Frontier?" (http://billboardradiomonitor.com/radiomonitor/news/business/digital/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1001772882&imw=Y, Jan. 03, 2006 By Tony Sanders)
Pela leitura do artigo percebe-se que estamos perante uma tecnologia chamada "Digital Multimedia Broadcasting" e que consiste basicamente em "delivering mobile video entertainment to any device that can receive the content". "MediaFLO is a proprietary system that uses UHF TV spectrum in the 700 mHz band for a one-way network to deliver video and audio content to cellphones."
Um dado final: "Korean carriers—SK Telecom and TU Media—are currently utilizing and promoting a platform known as Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB). Some suspect that XM could use DMB technology in the WCS band.”
"As emissões digitais em DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) são efectuadas em VHF (175 MHz a 240 MHz - VHF banda III - e 1452 MHz a 1492 MHz - VHF banda L). Já as emissões em DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale) serão efectuadas abaixo dos 30 MHz, precisamente na faixa onde se emite em AM"
via Jorge Guimarães Silva
"Al referirnos a la radio virtual podemos decir que queremos indicar una radio cuya existencia real en cuanto a personas y equipamiento técnico es reemplazada por personas y equipos de existencia virtual, es decir no real. En los últimos años la investigación se ha orientado a construir sistemas que poco a poco van completando la tecnología necesaria para producir la radio virtual.
Esto no se corresponde en absoluto con la idea que hasta el presente todos tenemos de la radio, pero es una demostración evidente de la capacidad de los sistemas de inteligencia artificial que se están aplicando ya con éxito en este campo."
Excerto de um texto de Aurora García na revista electrónica Razon y Palabra
Austrália, Alemanha, França, Dinamarca quere, ou não o DAB? Hesitações conferidas neste texto de Jorge Guimarães Silva.
Jorge Guimarães Silva volta a desenvolver o tema no seu A Rádio em Portugal.
"A situação que se vive é a de uma espiral viciosa: Os ouvintes não compram receptores digitais porque são caros e porque não têm oferta dos operadores; os fabricantes de receptores DAB não baixam os preços porque as vendas ainda não atingiram valores que permitisse manter a margem de lucro com receptores de menor preço; os operadores não apostam nos sistemas de radiodifusão digital porque, baseando-se nas estatísticas das vendas de receptores DAB, sabem que o número de ouvintes das emissões digitais ainda não justifica o investimento em novos equipamentos. E tudo volta ao início."
No Obercom (sobre o mesmo assunto):
"A Comissão Europeia publicou, no passado dia 24 de Maio de 2005, uma Comunicação sobre o switch-over para a radiodifusão digital. Nela salienta-se a importância de os diferentes Estados-membros avançarem com os processos de migração para a televisão digital.
A Comissão espera que, em 2010, este processo se encontre num estado suficientemente avançado e recomenda o ano de 2012 como o prazo comunitário para o switch-off analógico em todos os Estados-membros.
Ao mesmo tempo, a coordenação nos planos nacionais de transição para o digital não é muito expressiva, dado que vários países ainda não apresentaram o respectivo plano de transição ou não comunicaram à Comissão a data do switch-over."
O texto original da Comissão Europeia, aqui.
A Holanda tem planos para a introdução da rádio digital comercial (TDAB: Terrestrial Digital Audio
Broadcast). Com melhor qualidade sonora, a TDAB tem múltiplas vantagens, permitindo serviços especiais como informações de tráfego rodoviário ou previsões metereológicas, jornais
electrónicos e actualização de sistemas de navegação.
Texto original aqui
Transistor kills the radio star?
Um blogue de suporte a uma investigação sobre a rádio do futuro - ou o que quer que ela se venha a chamar...
Textos de referência