Se muestran los artículos pertenecientes al tema 3.0.1 "A geração iPod".
«Paragon Media Strategies has taken a second look at young people, radio, and new media, and it’s got some good news: Radio TSL is up among 14-24s, with 54 percent saying they’re listening to radio at least a little more than in the past. That’s a change from the first "Youth Radio and New Media" survey, in 2007, when most respondents said they were listening to radio less.»
This year’s Paragon Media Strategies’ study runs contrary to expectations that new media would continue to erode radio Time Spent Listening (TSL). Radio seems to have turned around many of the negative trends we documented in 2007.
Radio records positive momentum in 2008. When we asked if 14-24 year-old respondents were listening to over-the-air radio “More” or “Less” than they had in the past, the listening “More” won out by a healthy margin. Radio’s momentum had been slightly negative last year.
Radio displayed its resilience as the medium of convenience shoring up TSL among young respondents. There was a notable decline this year among respondents who “Never” listen to radio and among those who listen “Less than an hour during a typical day”.
Perhaps radio is escaping its uncool image as respondents warm up to music they like on the radio. Perhaps the music simply got better. Whether our study shows a sustained uptrend for radio or a ceasefire in the bombardment new media had delivered to radio TSL among young listeners is yet to be seen.
Detailed results of the complete Second Annual Youth Radio and New Media Study on our website www.paragonmediastrategies.com
MARK RAMSEY explica: «why are we making a conclusive statement of this type based on 400 expressed attitudes when Arbitron collects tens of thousands of actual listener behaviors every quarter? Answers of this type are notoriously unreliable in research - not so much because of the smallish sample but because the question asks for opinions of listening rather than an actual record of listening, which is what the diary and the PPM do. Opinions are fine for attitudes and perceptions, but they leave much to be desired when we're talking about actual behavior. And the fact that the trend was evidently in the other direction twelve months ago is proof of just how rickety these opinions are. Good news is always welcome. But good news must be accurate, too. Maybe this is, but maybe it isn't. If you want to know whether time spent listening is up among American youth in the past twelve months, just ask Arbitron»
«US Internet users ages 10 to 15 flocked to social networks last year as if getting a MySpace account would increase their allowances. Harris Interactive said in its April 2008 issue of Youth Trends that more than half of US girls ages 13 to 15 used social networking Web sites in 2007, roughly the same as in 2006. Social networking jumped among other boys and girls surveyed: more than twice as many children ages 10 to 12 reported using social networking sites in 2007 as did in 2006.»
fonte: Teen Social Networking Still Growing eMarketeer, MAY 1, 2008
«About 33 million Americans 12+ listen to an Internet station in an average week. That’s four million more than a year ago according to the annual “Infinite Dial” study by Arbitron and Edison Media Research. About two-thirds of online radio listeners have a profile on a social networking website. The most popular sites are MySpace and Linked-In.» Online listeners tap into social networks, Inside Radio, 18/03/08
«About 33 million Americans 12+ listen to an Internet station in an average week. That’s four million more than a year ago according to the annual “Infinite Dial” study by Arbitron and Edison Media Research. About two-thirds of online radio listeners have a profile on a social networking website. The most popular sites are MySpace and Linked-In.»
Online listeners tap into social networks, Inside Radio, 18/03/08
«(...) Most sites, such as Bebo, MySpace and Facebook, set a minimum age of between 13 and 14 to create a profile but none actively enforce the age limit. Ofcom's survey of 5,000 adults and 3,000 children found 49% of those aged between eight and 17 have a profile. (...) "Social networks are clearly a very important part of people's lives and are having an impact on how people live their lives," said James Thickett, director of market research at Ofcom. He added: "Children's lives are very different from what they were 20 years ago. Social networks are a way of creating a social bond." (...) The three leading social networks, MySpace, Bebo and Facebook, all say they remove profiles of users that are found to be too young on their sites.»
fonte: Children flock to social networks, 2/'4/08, By Darren Waters BBC News website
O estudo da OFCOM: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/02_04_08_ofcom.pdf
«The combination of a fashion accessory (iPod) with cheap and user-friendly downloads (iTunes) has already persuaded the web generation to buy music that they had previously enjoyed free» (BLACKHURST, 2006: 59
«A generation reared on the web and TV broadcast news – where second-hand information constantly circulates – have a very post-modern attitude to the originality of content. They are more interested in a précis of the top 20 stories of the day than they are in applauding exclusives» (BLACKHURST, 2006: 55
«According to a survey by the Online Publishers Association of America, only 3 per cent of American 16- to 24-year-olds see newspapers as their first or second choice of media» (BLACKHURST, 2006: 53)
«With billions of facts just a double click away, the media can no longer assume that young readers will turn to newspapers at all – even if they’re free» (58)
«We must not forget that music remains a very unique commodity; to take on meaning, it requires an incompressible lapse of time, that of its own duration. Thus the gramophone, conceived as a recorder to stockpile time, became instead its principle user. Conceived as a word preserver, it became a sound diffuser. The major contradiction of repetition is evident here: people must devote their time to producing the means to buy recordings of other people’s time, losing in the process not only the use of their time, but also the time required to use other people’s time. Stockpiling thus becomes a substitute, not a preliminary condition, for use. People buy more records than they can listen to. They stockpile what they want to find the time to hear. Use-time and exchange-time destroy one another. ([Jacques] Attali, 1985: 101; emphasis in original) (in STERNE, 2006: 830)
Coleccionar e a relação íntima: via walter benjamin «‘For a collector,’ wrote Walter Benjamin, ‘ownership is the most intimate relationship that one can have to objects’ (1968: 67). That one can collect mp3s suggests that they appear to users as cultural objects, even if they are not, in any conventional sense, physical objects that can be held in a person’s hand» (sterne, 2006: 831)
« (...) it is surprising how little of the common sense of technology studies has been applied to mp3s» (Sterne, 2006: 826).
Há um problema de percepção. Mas provavelmente não da forma que a industria está a considerar. Ou com a importância que lhe dá essa mesma industria:
«But industry executives say Americans still want to listen to the radio. And rather than fear threats from new technology, the industry is looking to use the technology to improve its product. "We found out [from consumer surveys] people love radio. But it's free and so accessible, they take it for granted," said David Rehr, president of the National Association of Broadcasters, a trade association that represents 8,300 radio and television stations. "We're the technology that's been around for a long time," he said. The NAB and several other industry groups banded together last month to start a new promotional program called "Radio Heard Here," which they hope will change perceptions that radio is a tired old medium. "We've got to push forward. We've got to be about tomorrow," Rehr said.
BASCH, Mark «Radio is working with, not against, iPods», Jacksonville.com, 19/05/08
Um dos fenómenos mais interessantes, a merecer estudo que foge deste âmbito, é a possibilidade de fazer coincidir grupos e estilos musicais com gerações, como sempre aconteceu. Aproveitando a abundância de música permitida pela digitalização e disponibilizada pelos iPods/mp3, há lugar à descoberta de velha música, ou, como dizia, o USA Today «Kids are listening to their parents; Their parents' music, that is», By Edna Gundersen, USA TODAY, 30/04/03
música (e música nova) os jovens ouviam; hoje já não é...
Quanto aos argumentos exógenos, aqueles que não são ’culpa’ da rádio: a rádio ganhou finalmente concorrência no seu terreno preferencial, o da acumulação e o da portabilidade, e no seu conteúdo mais apetecível, a música. Não só existem novos suportes que são autónomos e portáteis, como os telemóveis, os leitores de áudio ou as consolas de jogos (qualquer um deles com grande potencial de crescimento, a partir de memórias internas ou externas), como a nova música deixou de chegar quase exclusivamente pela rádio: chega agora através das muitas faces da Internet (downloads, canais streaming, podcasts, páginas oficiais ou oficiosas, troca de ficheiros em memórias portáteis). É na comparação com outros suportes tecnologicamente mais evoluídos que se percebem as limitações da rádio
Argumento de transição entre as queixas exógenas à rádio e as endógenas: a rádio, naturalmente incapaz de acompanhar todos os desenvolvimentos tecnológicos, começou a afastar-se dos interesses dos ouvintes mais novos, da própria linguagem a que estão habituados
In a series of telephone surveys for its CHR clients, Coleman Insights has seen a shift. In one top 20 market study, 84% of 14- to 17-year-olds reported listening to music on a computer, iPod or MP3 player every day compared to just 78% for radio. Jon Coleman says it’s the first time they’ve seen new technologies beat radio.
«Young consumers in the US wield considerable buying power. Among 13 to 21 year-olds alone, over 0 billion was spent in 2007, according to The Harris Poll. Definitions vary, but millennials are generally considered those born from 1979 to 1999. (...) The group's income is predicted to rise through at least 2017, when it will approach .5 trillion, according to Javelin Strategy & Research. The group is very comfortable shopping online. One-half of consumers under age 24 made an Internet purchase between April 2007 and February 2008, according to Nielsen Online. » fonte: «Gen Y Comes into Focus», eMarketeer, JUNE 6, 2008
«Young people consider online video content more of a necessity than cable television. They love their Macs. Content piracy is not as prevalent as you may think. And digital video advertising is a necessary evil. (...) 48.2 percent of teens 15 to 17 say they occasionally or frequently watch television programs online (53.5 percent male, 42.9 percent female); 41.8 percent of adults 18 to 24 say they occasionally or frequently»
fonte: Young People on Digital Content Jack Myers 28/05/08
«Podcast audience is growing “tremendously.” That’s according to Edison Media Research, which found the number of Americans who downloaded and listened to an audio podcast grew from 13% to 18% in the past year. Edison Research VP Tom Webster says stations should create as much "podcast-able content" as they can. Report HERE.» Inside radio, 28/05/08
De acordo com o estudo: 12-17 anos 15%, 18-24: 13%; 25-34: 21%; 35-44: 21%: 4-54: 20% (slide 12)
«Millennials are hungry for more control over when and where they access rich content. The ability to time-shift with DVRs and have access to HD programming were both highly desirable features: (...) "Millennials are now looking to make their connectivity more personalized and take experiences from 'primetime' to 'my time.'" (...) Millennials further expressed their "on demand" mind-set, indicating they prefer to watch programming or access content on their own terms and timeline, regardless of where that content originated: »
Curiosa a forma como o presidente da UBC Simon Cole apresentou (ontem) o seu projecto Cliq: «não se destina à geração iPod», mas há (na GB) 30 milhões que não têm leitores de mp3, que são ouvintes de rádio; este projecto é para eles. Ou seja, com os outrros já não há nada a fazer, a ideiá é tentar evitar que estes fujam antes que...
«According to a study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 22.3 percent of U.S. households with both landline and cell phones receive almost all of their phone calls on their mobile phone. That's 13.1 percent of all households in the United States. Combined with wireless-only households, 28.9 percent, or nearly 3 out of every 10 households, are reliant or almost completely dependent on cell phones. Now obviously Arbitron is aware of this problem. And, as they often tell us, coping with it is difficult and expensive. But what does it mean for these people to be - as a group - potentially stripped of qualification for your ratings? What does it mean for radio's effort to target younger audiences in particular? What does it mean when the 100 shares in your Arbitron rank don't include the one in four households who opt out of landlines?» Mark Ramsey
«The perception of radio is bad. That's what has to be turned around first - and you do that by improving the product. Repackaged you-know-what is still you-know-what.
«When public radio has to consider making its programs shorter because young listeners won’t listen, we officially have a documented attention span problem.
Sobre o momento adolescente/a adolescência: «Moment psychologiqueou physiologique? Moment sociologique? Le premier revient à considérer une étape quasi-biologique, le second un champ social de luttes et de représentations entre groupes ou bien un effet de la structure des rôles, au sens structuro-fonctionnaliste, entre famille et société civile» (Glevarec, 2003c: 32)
O panorama radiofónico francês relativamente aos jovens é um caso a parte - tanto quanto o conhecimento da realidade nos permite fazer essa afirmação (por exemplo relativamente a Portugal, Espanha, Grã-Bretanha, Brasil ou Estados Unidos, os mercado melhor conhecidos); seja pela realidade descrita nos estudos sociológicos de Hervé Glevarec (as rádios jovens que falam de problemas desses jovens e que deixam que sejam esses jovens a falar, basicamente a Skyrock, NRJ, Fun Radio), seja adesão dos jovens a essa realidade (numa grelha de preferências, consultados jovens dos 8 aos 19 anos, ouvir rádio é algo que cerca de 65% dizem gostar bastante, acima, por exemplo de ver um filme na televisão ou no video, abaixo dos 40%, sobretudo a partir dos 11 anos - 2003c, pag 7; 88,5% dos jovens entre os 11 e os 14 anos e 93,3% dos 15 aos 19 anos em França ouvem essas estações ou ainda Le Mouv' e Chérie FM; 2003d: 30) seja pela qualidade, persistência e, permita-se, paixão dos próprios e múltiplos estudos - integrados num projecto de pesquisa sociológica liderado por Glevarec, com Pinot e Choquet, 'Radio libre, L'écoute radiophonique des adolescents, Study Report; Department of Analysis and Forecasting, Ministry of Culture).
Nem a televisão, nem a escola nem a família: «L’intérêt sociologique de la radio en France réside dans le fait qu’elle est le seul espace d’une prise de parole et d’une apparition publiques des adolescents, notamment parce qu’une part de sa programmation est une diffusion quotidienne d’émissions de radio libre ou libre antenne de plusieurs heures le soir» (2003c: 2-3)
«Ces émissions traitent directement de "problèmes qui concernent les adolescents et dans lesquels ils se reconnaissant» (2003c 3)
«La radio des adolescents trouverait utilement à être située sociologiquement dans la tension contemporaine entre deux théorisations inverses que sont le moment adolescent et la fin de l’enfance» (2003c 3)
A rádio funciona como um rito de passagem: «(...) nous voudrions proposer ici la notion de lieu de passage par analogie avec le "rite de passage" théorisé par Van Gennep» (2003c 4)
«Les radios pour les adolescents sont à la fois agents de socialisation à ce que pourrait être un âge adulte et agents de socialisation à l’espace public.» (2003c 31)
O QUE É QUE A RÀDIO TEM DE ESPECIAL: «L’isolation et la durée momentanée de l’écoute, le décalage subjectif à son principe, les catégorisations et frontières symboliques produites, la position de mentor des animateurs, le cadre amical et professionnel de la production, tous ces éléments indiquent d’une part que face aux auditeurs, la radio produit des catégorisations, des signifiants et des repères, d’autre part qu’elle satisfait à l’autonomie ou au discours de f.’autonomie de la part des adolescents» (2003c 31)
«what characterizes youth radio is the presence also of so-called interactive or talk programmes. In the. UK and the US this is called zoo radio: 'a kind of mix of pop music, gossip, pop psychology and humour' (Glevarec 2003d: 30)
«Youth radio stations in France broadcast two sorts of programmes each day: music; and, in the evening, between 9 p. m. and midnight - sometimes Iater - interactive talk.. This second type of programme, which the stations call 'libres antennes. ('free on the air' or 'free radio') is central and we would like to focus on it. Presenters and listeners who phone in taIk about a wide variety of topics, essencially 'problemes des jeunes': sexual practices, drugs, relationships between girls and boys and others, football, TV programmes, political news...» (2003d: 30)
«The central characteristic of youth radio stations is their mixed, or what we call their 'in-between' nature. This dimension is essential in order to characterize what is going on there, the type of link which is established with the presenters, and the enjoyment of the adolescents. (...) They exist in-between: between two social spaces, being both institutional and friendly, presenter and pal, presenter and switchboard operator» (33-34)
(a partir de uma reflexão sobre a televisão)
«Es probable que los niños acudan a los videojuegos a falta de programas adecuados en la televisión.(...) Secundariamente, los videojuegos son una posibilidad atrayente como sustitución de una programación televisiva inadecuada» (SALGADO CARRIÓN, 2006: 99).
«La relación entre radio y televisión en el marco de la audiencia infantil no tiene carácter antagónico, en el sentido de que cuanto mayor es la audiencia de uno de estos medios menor es la del otro, sino que la radio y la televisión funcionan como elementos complementarios sin que esto implique la dependencia de uno sobre otro» (SALGADO CARRIÓN, 2006: 177).
Linda Tod (2002) fala numa 'playstation generation' («The playstation generation are already technologically literate – this literacy needs to be harnessed and used as a key to future learning and not just a source of amusement.») (pag 8)
Kearney e Skelton (2003) falam também numa 'geração playstation', «Today’s computing students arrive in our classroom familiar with a wide range of technology. They are used to rapid change and fast paced, interactive environments that this brings. This is the Playstation generation and engaging them in the classroom requires us to be innovative and creative with our learning strategies» (pág 1)
«What should we call these "new" students of today? Some refer to them as the N-[for Net]-gen or D-[for digital]-gen. But the most useful designation I have found for them is Digital Natives. Our students today are all "native speakers" of the digital language of computers, video games and the Internet.» (Prenski, 2001: 1)
«Today‟s students – K through college – represent the first generations to grow up with this new technology. They have spent their entire lives surrounded by and using computers, videogames, digital music players, video cams, cell phones, and all the other toys and tools of the digital age. Today‟s average college grads have spent less than 5,000 hours of their lives reading, but over 10,000 hours playing video games (not to mention 20,000 hours watching TV). Computer games, email, the Internet, cell phones and instant messaging are integral parts of their lives.» (Prenski, 2001: 1)
« US teens are nearly universal users of the Internet and e-mail, according to the Pew Internet and American Life Project-National Commission on Writing report titled "Writing, Technology and Teens," conducted from September to November 2007. The study was conducted to determine the relationship between online and "real" writing. While educators hope to turn teens' heavy use of electronic text into solid writing skills, the data should also interest marketers who want to reach teens. [12-14 anos: 92%; 15-17: 96%] Responding teens were heavy users of electronic communications overall: 71% had a mobile phone, 59% had a notebook or desktop PC, 58% had a social network profile and 27% had a blog.»
«US Teens Compose Constantly Online», eMarketeer, APRIL 25, 2008
(um exemplo de como o comportamento da geração iPod - os seus hábitos, os seus comportamentos - vai influenciar a definição de um novo tipo de consumo, o consumo activo; no caso, ao não encontrarem na rádio as musicas de que gostam, procuram onde isso é possivel)
«Too much repetition, not enough new music. Any programmer knows that if you cut the playlist and play the hits, your ratings will go up. But with this generation it is different. They really do like obscure songs. Many are so anti-repetition that they will just walk away from it. Some can't understand why radio stations insist upon telling them that they play the greatest variety when the playlists are so obviously short. This is a deal breaker with the next generation» COLLIANO, Jerry del, Gen Y Consults Radio Inside Music Media, 14/04/08
«I don’t see technology as a foreign object “impacting” and “transforming” social life and cultural patterns. Rather, the relationship between technology and society is more organic and co-constitutive. Technologies are objectifications of particular cultures and social relationships and, in turn, are incorporated into the stream of social and cultural evolution. In other words, Japanese technology and usage patterns are likely to replicate in other contexts only to the extent that there are similarities in the overall “technosocial” ecologies of mobile media practice and communication. Nothing “inherent” in the mobile handsets themselves is socially or culturally transformative.» Mizuko Ito, “Personal Portable Pedestrian: Lessons from Japanese Mobile Phone,” Japan Focus, October 30, 2005., in Lasica, 2007: 17
OMNIPRESENTE (em tempo e espaço; a qualquer hora e a qualquer momento)«Indeed, the cell phone, rather than the personal computer, is the constant companion for today’s hip and socially networked consumer.Why wait until you get home to log onto the PC to tell your 10 closest friends about your date? Teens use a network-friendly cell phone to relay stories, pictures, and videos instantly. “You can use [the mobile application] in this 2- or 3-minute gap while waiting for a train,” Kakul Srivastava, product manager for photo-sharing site Flickr, told Business Week. “People are out there, living their lives. They are not sitting in front of the computer.”Olga Kharif, “Social Networking Goes Mobile,” Business Week, May 31, 2006. Available at http://www.businessweek.com/print/technology/content/may2006/tc20060530_170086.htm.) (LASICA, 2007: 11)
INTERACTIVIDADE ao máximo «(...) wireless technologies are already affecting how members of the Mobile Generation interact with others—across the hall, down the street, or around the globe—through text, voice, and pictures. On a deeper level, we are beginning to see glimpses of how increased connectivity will affect such basic underpinnings of our social fabric as individuality, privacy, and identity. For example, the combination of location-specific technologies with mobile-commerce records can create a profile of individual actions, behavior, and even thought that exceeds anything previously possible» (LASICA, 2007: 15)
«Companies such as Google, Yahoo!, and Facebook have designs on mobile social networking. “The connectivity of technology has moved mobile,” said moderator Charles M. Firestone, executive director of the Communications and Society Program at the Aspen Institute. That facet of ongoing dialogue can be witnessed not only in texting but in the phenomenon of sharing photos, and now videos, with friends, colleagues, and loved ones.» (Lasica, 2007: 20)
«Companies such as Google, Yahoo!, and Facebook have designs on mobile social networking. “The connectivity of technology has moved mobile,” said moderator Charles M. Firestone, executive director of the Communications and Society Program at the Aspen Institute. That facet of ongoing dialogue can be witnessed not only in texting but in the phenomenon of sharing photos, and now videos, with friends, colleagues, and loved ones.» (Lasica, 2007: 20)
«A recent survey found that 80 percent of Americans ages 18 to 29 own cell phones, and 65 percent of those users send text messages on a regular basis. (...).[Allen G. Breed, “Nation Takes to Texting,” Associated Press, October 16, 2006].A vice president at the research firm M:Metrics told Advertising Age, “They [cell phone users age 13-17] are crazy for mobile. They see [a mobile device] as this little digital communicator that they can take with them wherever they go.” Bradley Johnson, “Connected and Craving: Teens Hungry for Latest Cellphone Technology,” Advertising Age ,March 20, 2006.Available online: http://adage.com/americandemographics/article. (...)the Pew survey found differences in cell phone use among various age groups. The survey makes clear that young cell phone users—those between ages 18 and 29—have different experiences with their cell phones than do older Americans. Compared to older cell phone owners, young adults are more likely to reserve their calls until the hours that do not affect the minutes used in their rate plan; they are more likely to make spontaneous calls when they have free time; they are more likely to use a cell phone to avoid disclosing where they are; and they are more likely to feel burdened by the intrusions the cell phone brings into their lives. In addition, they are more likely to experience sticker shock when monthly bills arrive.Rainie and Keeter, “How Americans Use Their Cell Phone.”.Young people in particular are embracing forms of participatory media. Already, 33.2 percent of 18- to 24-year-old Americans post photos to Web sites via mobile phones, according to another survey.Olga Kharif, “Social Networking Goes Mobile,” Business Week, May 31, 2006. Available at http://www.businessweek.com/print/technology/content/may2006/tc20060530_170086.htm (...) Studies show that young consumers are among the heaviest users of premium wireless features such as messaging, game downloads, photo services, sports information, and entertainment news. Teens ages 13-17 use phone features to get restaurant and movie information at more than twice the national average.» (Lasica, 2007: 10)
«(...) First, in the 18-34 demo, this youngest surveyed segment spends far more time listening to “personal music” (CDs, MP3s) (46%) than to AM or FM broadcasts (27%). Second, the computer is the most popular “player” for 18-34’s “personal music” (as opposed to stereos or CD players), which shows they’re comfortable with the PC as a music source. Yet this demo only spend 12% of listening time with online radio, so perhaps there’s an opportunity for webcasters to grow with this audience segment. (...) Why is listenership not growing faster? The biggest reason given: 78% said they’re “just not in habit yet,” which is a behavior that can change. More alarminly, 69% said Internet “buffering” issues made it too annoying to listen.
«(...) music can relieve tension; provide escape or distraction from problems; relieve loneliness; fill the time when there is nothing much to do; ease the drudgery of repetitive menial tasks and chores; fill uncomfortable silence; provide topics of conversation; make parties more lively; teach new vocabulary; articulate political attitudes; and perform many other uses for the listener (Christenson & Roberts, 1998). It is, in other words, an equipment with many uses» (Roberts et al, 2001: 398)
«For most kids, most of the time, music is a source of pleasure. They listen not to analyze lyrics and learn about the world, not to sort out emotions and feelings, not to facilitate social interaction, but simply because they like it. To be sure, popular music does teach them things, does help them to sort out emotions and feelings, does facilitate social interaction» (Roberts el at, 2001: 410)
[confusão positiva ou negativa para a rádio?]
Roberts e Christenson perguntaram a um grupo de jovens (pré e universitários) que meio escolheriam para levar para uma ilha deserta, dando como opções um receptor de televisão, livros, videojogos, computador, jornais, gravador video e cassetes video, revistas, rádio e gravações musicais (e formas de as tocar). . Since radio is almost exclusively a music medium among adolescents, radio and recordings were combined into a single "music" category». (Roberts, 2001: 395). A musica veio em primeiro lugar em todas as opções e combinações; a televisão em segundo. «More than 800/0 of :he total sample made music one of their first three choices, and music was the first choice or nearly half.»
We agree with Keith Roe that, "in terms of both the sheer amount of time devoted to it and the meanings assumes, it is music, not television, that is the most important medium for adolescents" (Roe, 1987,pp.215-216) (Roberts et al 2001: 395)
«It should also be noted that music-listening estimates based only on radio use (e.g., Brown et al., 1986; Brown et al, 1990; Greenberg, Ku, & Li, 1989; Lyle & Hoffman, 1972) will produce lower figures than those that include questions about CD and tape playback and time spent watching music videos» (397)
«(...) most studies have a tendency to underestimate young people’s popular music listening. Music is often a secondary, backgroound activity appearing in the adolescent’s environment without any conscious decision to introduce it. (...) Obviously, music’s tendency to slip between foreground and background raises questions about what kind of "listening" should be counted as true exposure» (397) (USADO EM GERAÇÂO IPOD)
«Subrahmanyam and Greenfield (l994) found that practice on a computer game (Marble Madness) reliably improved spatial performance (e.g., anticipating targets, extrapolating spatial paths) compared with practice on a computerized word game. Similarly, Okagaki and Frensch (1994) reported that ractice on the the computer game Tetris (a game that requires the rapid rotation and placement of seven different-shaped blocks (...)) significantly improved undergraduate students' mental rotation time and spatiaI visualization time on computerized spatial performance tests (...).Another study explored the role of interactive games in developing strategies for keeping track of events at multiple locations on screen. In a task where an icon could appear either of two locations (but with unequal probabilities), the researchers found that expert video game players had faster response times than novices at both high - and low - probability positions of the icon. (Subrahmanyam et al, 2001: 83-84)
[isto irá relacionar-se com as novas utilizações/tendencias do segundo choque; os videojogos têm caracteristicas que fazem mudar o comportamento e as exigências dos novos consumidores]
«In the mid-1930s, children 9 to 12 years old listened to radio approximately 2 to 3 hours a day (DeBoer, 1937; JersiId, 1939). Lyness (1952) surveyed third-, fifth-, seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-grade students in 1950 who lived in cities that had newspapers, radio stations, and movie theaters (but no television yet). All the children, except third-grade boys, named named radio as their most frequently engaged in activity at home in the evening. Overall, for girls time spent listening to radio increased with age, while for boys it decreased after the peak around fifth or seventh grade.
Even when television became the main mass medium, the amount of time that children and young adolescents spent listening to radio was very similar to earlier radio days. Confirming radio's consistent listenership, Lyle and Hoffman (1972) report that, even when television was the most favored medium, among their subjects, half of the first graders and 80% of the sixth graders reported listening to radio on the preceding day. Furthermore, 24 % of tenth graders reported listening 5 hours or more a day. This study shows that, regardless of television's dominance, at least children were still enjoying radio. Furthermore, they found that, with increasing age, more time was spent with radio and less withtelevision. » (PAIK, 2001: 11-12)
«La radio des jeunes est en effect à la fois une forme culturelle et un certain type d'object social» [a reflexão do autor tem em conta a existencia de emissões ditas de 'antena livre' à noite ou ao fim da tarde em rádios destinadas aos jovens, emissões interactivas em que participam os ouvintes via telefone, emissões que foram reguladas pelo Conselho Superior do Audiovisual em 2003](Glevarec, 2004: 2)
«Les "libres antennes" des "radios jeunes" s'élaborent, elles, dans une ambiguïté de cadre: celui-ci n'est ni pleinement sérieux, ni pleinement ludique, ni tout à fait professionnel ni tout à fait ordinaire, ni strictement formaté, ni strictement situé. D'un point de vue très général, les "libres antennes" sont produites dans un cadre ludique et générationnel, où la transgression civile a jusqu'à maintenant été acceptée, mais un cadre qui doit rester dans les limites de sa transformation en une situation d'irrespect des personnes.» (Glevarec, 2004:3)
[isto remete-nos para a existência em França de programação que interessa aos jovens, ao contrário do que acontece em Portugal, por exemplo]
«The switching of attention from one task to another, the toggling action, occurs in a region right behind the forehead called Brodmann's Area 10 in the brain's anterior prefrontal cortex, according to a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study by Grafman's team. Brodmann's Area 10 is part of the frontal lobes, which "are important for maintaining long-term goals and achieving them," Grafman explains. "The most anterior part allows you to leave something when it's incomplete and return to the same place and continue from there." This gives us a "form of multitasking," he says, though it's actually sequential processing. Because the prefrontal cortex is one of the last regions of the brain to mature and one of the first to decline with aging, young children do not multitask well, and neither do most adults over 60. New fMRI studies at Toronto's Rotman Research Institute suggest that as we get older, we have more trouble "turning down background thoughts when turning to a new task," says Rotman senior scientist and assistant director Cheryl Grady. "Younger adults are better at tuning out stuff when they want to," says Grady. "I'm in my 50s, and I know that I can't work and listen to music with lyrics; it was easier when I was younger."»
fonte: Mar. 19, 2006 The Multitasking Generation By Claudia Wallis Time
«Today 82% of kids are online by the seventh grade, according to the Pew Internet and American Life Project. And what they love about the computer, of course, is that it offers the radio/CD thing and so much more--games, movies, e-mail, IM, Google, MySpace. The big finding of a 2005 survey of Americans ages 8 to 18 by the Kaiser Family Foundation, co-authored by Roberts, is not that kids were spending a larger chunk of time using electronic media--that was holding steady at 6.5 hours a day (could it possibly get any bigger?)--but that they were packing more media exposure into that time: 8.5 hours' worth, thanks to "media multitasking"--listening to iTunes, watching a DVD and IMing friends all at the same time. Increasingly, the media-hungry members of Generation M, as Kaiser dubbed them, don't just sit down to watch a TV show with their friends or family. From a quarter to a third of them, according to the survey, say they simultaneously absorb some other medium "most of the time" while watching TV, listening to music, using the computer or even while reading.»
fonte: Mar. 19, 2006 The Multitasking Generation By Claudia Wallis Time
«iPod/Portable MP3 Player Now a ‘Must Have’ Among Teens» (slide 28):
12-17 anos: Janeiro 06: 42%; Janeiro 2007: 54%; Janeiro 08: 73%
18-24 anos: 31%, 39%, 51%
25-34: 30, 38, 48%
35-44: 30, 38, 46%
IMPACTO NA ESCUTA DE RÀDIO:
«Only 10% Report Less Radio Listening Due to Time Spent with iPod/MP3 Player» (slide 31):
Sem efeito 21%
«Ipod/MP3 Player Has Greater Impact On Radio Among 12-24-Year-Olds» (% By Age Group Who Are Spending Less Time with Over-the-Air Radio Specifically Due to Time Spent with iPod/Other Portable MP3 Player): 12-17: -22%; 28-24: -17%; 25-34: -12%; 35-44: -9% (slide 32)
CONCLUSÃO« New iPod models Continue To Fuel Growth of Portable MP3 Players: The introduction of the iPhone and new iPod models continue to propel growth. Nearly four in ten Americans now own an iPod or other portable MP3 player. Continued growth and ubiquity means media companies need to have a podcast and iPod/MP3 player strategy.»
«In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs -- that we studied in psych class -- it begins with the basics at the bottom of a pyramid. For example, physiological needs like breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, etc are basic needs before the others can be possible on top of these.
Jerry Del Colliano, Music Inside Media, Gen Y’s Media Hierarchy of Needs 10/04/08
«(...) The University of Minnesota School of Public Health finds that 15-18 year olds with a television set in their bedroom watch more, eat less well, drink more sugar, exercise less and see their grades at school suffer. Perhaps surprisingly, however, the TV-owning teens somehow managed to dodge the obesity bullet, usually a direct result of the double whammy of sedentary activity levels combined with poor dietary habits. According to a Reuters report on the study, 62% of 15-18 year olds have a bedroom television, and as a result indulge in five additional hours of weekly viewing over that watched by the 38% without a bedroom TV.» Radio Business Report 8/04/08, Volume 25, Issue 69, Jim Carnegie, Editor & Publisher
«American Media Services has released more results from its "Radio Index" survey, reporting that 33 percent of U.S. adults have ever heard an Internet radio station, and 53 percent of those who have heard Internet radio have listened to an online station within the past month.
Not surprisingly, younger adults are more likely to have heard Internet radio, with 44.5 percent of 18-24-year-old respondents saying they've listened online, compared to 40.1 percent of 35-49s and 6.6 percent of those 65 and older. There's a gender split as well: Thirty-seven percent of 18+ men have listened to Internet radio vs. 29 percent of 18+ women.
"It is clear that a significant number of Americans are comfortable with listening to Internet radio, and with the new technology that supports it," said AMS Chairman Edward Seeger. "The AMS Radio Index shows that listening to terrestrial radio remains as popular as ever, but also indicates that the way people listen has expanded to new platforms as digital technology has provided more and more choices. This truly is an exciting time to be in the radio business."
The survey of 1,004 American adults was conducted by Omnitel for AMS over the weekend of March 28-30.»
Radio Ink,Survey: 33% Of U.S. Adults Have Listened To Internet Radio, 9/04/08
O estudo coordenado em 2007 por Gustavo Cardoso no âmbito do CIES/ISCTE – Centro de Investigação e Estudos em Sociologia, Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa, tem como titulo E-Generation: Os Usos de Media pelas Crianças e Jovens em Portugal; Chamam E-Generation aos jovens dos 8-18 anos
«(...) os jovens, em especial os mais velhos, vivem numa situação transitiva entre o estatuto de criança e o estatuto de jovem adulto, o “homenzinho”. Vivem, na maior parte dos casos, sobre a alçada financeira dos pais mas vão desfrutando cada vez mais de novos campos de liberdade e os media podem ser vistos como expressão da sua crescente liberdade. Note-se aqui, portanto, a ligação entre a privatização dos tempos livres, está a par de novas reconfigurações e negociações no significado de juventude e de família num contexto de democratização da vida familiar» (Cardoso, 2007: 321)
«A imagem da convivência em família em torno da “lareira electrónica” parece, hoje em dia, dar lugar à rede convivial, real e virtual permitida pela emergência dos novos media e das novas tecnologias da informação e comunicação (TIC). As gerações mais novas têm crescido no meio de mudanças no domínio da interactividade da comunicação e no meio de um sistema de múltiplos produtores e distribuidores. Os jovens são assim particularmente susceptíveis a uma socialização entre várias realidades mediáticas, concorrentes ou complementares, e crescem entre uma multiplicidade de escolhas no que respeita às formas de comunicação, entretenimento e informação. Novas competências parecem estar a ser adquiridas intuitivamente pelos mais novos como a forma de explorar a interligação entre as várias realidades mediáticas e a forma de operar vários expedientes mediáticos simultaneamente.» (Cardoso, 2007: 25)
«Les huit activités principales les plus fréquemment notées par les adolescents, pendant l'écoute de la radio sur le journée moyenne dont on agrège les unités minimales de temps, sont des activités domestiques. (...) En effet, quel est le plus important ? L'activité dite "principale" ou bien la situation qu'elle forme avec l'écoute de la radio? Que la radio accompagne une autre activité veut-il dire qu'elle y est logiquement soumise? (...) La consommation solitaire et partagée, l'écoute domestique et délocalisée, la pratique du , latin, de l'après-midi et du soir par les adolescents font de la radio un objet multifonctionnel» (Glevarec, 2003b: 325)
APESAR DISSO, Glevarec recusa a função secundária da rádio, enunciada por Crisell:
«La radio n'a plus rien ici de l'objet aveugle et secondaire. Elle est un objet "immense" qui concerne tout aussi bien la place de la musique chez les adolescents, que les expériences à cet âge, ou encore le marquage de leur territoire par rapport aux parents.» (Glevarec, 2003b: 332(14))
«(...)l'écoute va devenir plus domestique, s'inscrire dans une «culture de la chambre» [citando Simon Frith, The Sociology of Rock]. Il semble y avoir là une très forte interdépendance entre culture et support de consommation.» (Glevarec, 2003: 87)
«L'usage dominant que les adolescents font des radios qu'ils écoutent est un usage plutôt privatif. À la différence de l'Angleterre où la possession d'un téléviseur dans la chambre des adolescents est le fait de l'ensemble des classes sociales, seule la radio est, en France, le média possédé par la majorité des adolescents dans leur chambre. La radio de la chambre est traversée par la construction d'une séparation d'avec l'extérieur, tandis que les radios partagées (la cuisine, la voiture...) sont le lien d'une discussion entre membres de la famille autour des préférences» (Glevarec, 2003: 90)
«la radio est un instrument de socialisation concurrent par rapport à la famille et à l'école; enfin, la radio est un instrument nouveau par rapport aux institutions traditionnelles de légitimation culturelle» (Glevarec, 2003: 86)
«Du point de vue des adolescents, la transformation majeure qu'apportent les radios réside dans la lise à disposition et la diversification des « musiques ». Cette disponibilité est encore plus forte que pour la télévision parce qu'elle correspond à des usages moins captifs du support: les adolescents écoutent sur différents postes, chaînes et Walkmans, à domicile et à l'extérieur, seul et en compagnie. La disponibilité des différentes radios musicales offre une étendue et une ouverture à l'écoute musicale , fortement valorisées par les adolescents.» (Glevarec, 2003: 86)
«La radio pour les adolescents est, d'une part, un des supports d'une pratique juvénile décisive, à 'oir l'écoute de la musique, d'autre part, le lieu d'un investissement qui, chez les 14-16 ans, l'inscrit ans un véritable 'moment radiophonique adolescent' » (Glevarec, 2003, 85)
«La radio occupe une position double dans les pratiques des adolescents. Elle est à la fois un espace d'identification, à travers le "style", et un espace d'apparition de par son insertion dans la construction anthropologique de l'adolescence. Elle est traversée par une double catégorisation, identitaire et générationnelle. L'une porte sur la contribution de la radio à l'intégration, l'autre sur son apport à la construction du "moment adolescent" par rapport au temps et au monde adulte» (Glevarec, 2003b: 326)
«D'un point de vue socio-historique, l'écoute adolescente des radios manifeste d'une part un fait générationnel - elle concerne les individus nés depuis les années 1980 -, d'autre part le moment adolescent comme moment de passage, de transformation, de questionnement et comme espace culturel propre en termes de style. Elles constituent un lieu d'identification pour certaines catégories de jeunes, à travers le genre de musique qui y est privilégié, mais aussi à travers les animateurs, les intervenants et les sujets qui s'y manifestent. » (Glevarec, 2003b: 332/14)
«The survey also found that younger listeners, 18-34, are more likely to mention convenience (46 percent) than content (24 percent) when they say why they value radio. »
The audience for MP3 players continues to grow at a brisk pace. As of early 2007, nearly a third of the American public (30%) over the age of 12 owned an iPod or other MP3 player, up from 22% the previous year (Arbitron, “The Infinite Dial 2007: Radio’s Digital Platforms,” April 19, 2007) Small, sleek and portable, MP3 players were most popular with kids. More than half (54%) of 12- to 17-year-olds owned an iPod or other type of MP3 player at the beginning of 2007, up from 42% the previous year. (state of the news media 2008)
«More than half of all online teens who go online create content for the internet. Among internet-using teens, 57% (or 50% of all teens, roughly 12 million youth) are what might be called Content Creators. They report having done one or more of the following content- creating activities: create a blog; create a personal webpage; create a webpage for school, a friend, or an organization; share original content they created themselves online; or remix content found online into a new creation.» fonte: Amanda Lenhart e Mary Madden,Teen Content Creators and Consumers, Pew Internet & American Life Project, 2005, pag 1
«Overall, one-third (33%) of online teens report sharing their own artwork, photos, stories, or videos with others via the internet.» (pag 2)
«the study, “Kids on the Go: Mobile Usage by U.S. Teens and Tweens,” includes “insights from more than 5,500 teens and tweens and dissects how these demographic segments are engaging with mobile and traditional media.”
"In addition to the differences between adult and youth media consumers, there's an important gap between the media behaviors of teens and tweens," said Herrmann. "This report, which includes insights from more than 5,500 teens and tweens, dissects how these demographic segments are engaging with mobile and traditional media."
Teens vs. Tweens
« In an environment where everyone is discussing the migration of viewership to the Web, the baby boomer generation still demonstrates a preference for traditional television, according to research commissioned by the Hallmark Channel.
"The Consumer Television and Technology Study," conducted by Millward Brown, also indicated that baby boomers are less likely to fast-forward or skip commercials. These findings were a stark contrast to the millennials, who actively choose new technology and products such as digital video recorders, video on demand and pay per view to watch video content.
Among some of the key findings: only 31 percent of millennials believe new TV technologies are complicated and difficult to use, as opposed to 55 percent of baby boomers. The research also found that 52 percent of millennials are more likely to consider mobile devices as forms of entertainment, versus 35 percent of boomers. Additionally, 27 percent of millennials go to Web sites to watch video, compared to 9 percent of boomers. ( The national survey involved 1,200 cable and satellite viewers via telephone.» Hallmark: Boomers Prefer Traditional TV March 27, 2008 -By Shahnaz Mahmud
«Two thirds of young people aged 16 - 21 now listen to some form of mobile music on the go, MOBILE PHONES ARE MUSIC TO THE EARS FOR RADIO SAY TNS, TNS 26/02/08
Reflexões sobre o multitasking, a partir do estudo A Internet em Portugal (2003-2007, do Obercom):
Multitasking pressupõe pelo menos duas actividades em simultâneo; multitasking não deverá partir de ter a internet ligada (o browser aberto) mesmo que 'parado'; multitasking terá de pressupor estar a ver videos e a visitar um museu, ouvir rádio ou musica e ler um jornal, ver um episodio e de vez em quando ir ao MSN, enquanto ele decorre (porque se houver pausa já só há função);
de qualquer forma, é possivel que a partir de determinados questionários, em que as questão não fique clara, seja o respondente a revelar a sua propria representação do que é usar a internet;
«Media multitasking involves using TV, the Web, radio, telephone, print, or any other media in conjunction with another. Also referred to as "simultaneous media use," this behavior has emerged as increasingly common, especicially among younger media users, and has gained significant attention in media usage measurement, especially as a new opportunity for cross-media advertising. Much of this multitasking is not inherently coupled or coordinated except by the user. For example a user may be surfing the Web, using e-mail, or talking on the phone while watching TV.»
Os humanos (jovens ou não) sempre fizeram multitasking: estudar e ouvir musica, por exemplo; conduzir e ouvir musica; dar de mamar a uma criança e ver televisão ou ler; agora a tecnologia permites-lhes realizar, mais vezes, duas ou mais tarefas ao mesmo tempo (musica no rádio,m no iPod ou no computador, estudar e instante message com os amigos): conversar com uns auscultadores nos ouvidos (um pelo menos); diversos gadgets
ver: The multitasking generation C Wallis - Time, 2006 - fritzhubbard.org
«One of the emerging truisms about Generation Y is hat Yers are conscious of brands but not loyal to them. They are known for having short attention spans and don't give I second thought to abandoning one brand name for another.» (HUntley, 2006: 151)
«Even more than X, members of Generation Y are intensely tribal creatures. Young people's reliance on friendship groups is nothing new. What is new is that Generation Y expects to be committed to friends well beyond young adulthood. (...) For Yers, friends are like family only better. » (Huntley, 2006: 25)
«Communication technology-in the form of mobiles, email, online chat and of course texting-has become an indispensable tool for Gen- Yers in maintaining their friendship network (and their own status within it). (...) But everyone I spoke to used at least one of these technologies to organise their social life. (...) Yers are texting each other in movie cinemas, on buses, in cafes and under the table in university tutorials. (...) Limited access to technology means a hampered social existence for Yers.» (Huntley, 2006: 36)
«Whilst their childhoods were sheltered worlds in which their desires were eagerly met by parents and grandparents, they have emerged into an adult world where only one rule exists - the certainty of uncertainty. Hugh Mackay says this is a generation 'born into the age of uncertainty'. (...) Insecurity and uncertainty are now part of life for all age groups. But Generation ¥, with its unfailing optimism, has incorporated 'uncertainty' and 'insecurity' into its worldview and has refashioned these negatives into 'freedom' as a positive. Freedom and uncertainty are the yin and yang of the Y world. Choice, options, flexibility are the buzzwords for this generation, something marketers and the manufacturers of mobile phones have long understood.» (Huntley, 2006: 15-16)
«What is Generation Y? The term is clumsy, and suggests that it picks up where X left off, which is not the case. It has been given many names - the Net Generation, the Millennials, the Dotcoms and the Thumb Generation (referring to their dexterity with remote controls, computer keyboards and mobile phones) and Echo-Boomers (as the product) both biologically and socially, of their Baby Boomer parents). Yers have been described as the Paradoxical Generation, due to their seemingly contradictory approach to life (they drink and take drugs but eat organic food, they are obsessed with technology but fear it is depriving them of deeper personal relationships, they want to get married but resist settling dowll with a partner)» (huntley, 2006: 10)
«They were born and raised in a global society where consumerism and capitalism are natural conditions and go largely unchallenged. To them, technology is their natural ally, a necessity rather than a luxury, the solution to all imaginable problems.» (Huntley, 2006:2)
«The interaction between technology and Generation Y has been the subject of much research and public commentary. It is clearly the most technologically savvy generation yet, a group that has never known a world without remote controls, CDs, cable TV and computers. Of course this has ramifications for the workplace and the marketplace. The future of communications companies and electronic manufacturers is certainly secure. But Gen y's understanding and early adoption of new technologies goes beyond its seemingly unique capacity to program the household DVD. Generation Y's mastery of and reliance on technology has altered the way it views time and space. » (Huntley, 2006: 17)
«As a group, Millennials are unlike any other youth generation in living memory. They are more numerous, more affluent, better educated, and ethnically diverse. More important, they are beginning to manifest a wide array of positive social habits that older Americans no longer associate with youth, including a new focus on teamwork, achievement, modesty and good conduct. Only a few years from now, this can-do youth revolution will overwhelm the cynics and pessimists. Over the next decade, the Millennial Generation will entirely recast the image of youth from downbeat and alienated to upbeat and engaged-with potentially seismic consequences for America» (HOwe, 2000: 4)
«Millennials are growing up as familiar with computers as Boomers vere with television. In fact, more of today's teens say they can live without a television (28 percent) than without a computer (23 percent). With computer ownership becoming more essential, gender and income gaps are narrowing. Slightly more boys than girls have their own computers, and three of four affluent teens have access to one, versus roughly half of those below the poverty line. Through the late' 90s, the percentage of online kids continued to grow rapidly. Among those aged 8 to 17, the share rose from 25 percent in 1996 to 35 percent in 1997 to 42 percent in 1998, to somewhere around 50 percent in 2000. Of those who are on-line, 60 percent log on once or more a week» (Howe, 2000: 273)
«Technological progress - which served as a liberating purpose to Boomers, and a diversifying purpose to Gen Xers - is serving a new unifying purpose for today's teens. Ownership of tech tools and toys has become a badge of generational membership. While the percentage of kids with their own rooms keeps rising (76 percent in 1997), those rooms keep filling up with gadgets» (Howe, 2000: 272)
«Technology always means something new to each generation. The young Silent regarded computers as necessary adjuncts to American technocracy, with mainframes at the apex of vast institutional pyramids. Young Boomers shattered the telscreen and invented the new personal computer, which allowed each person to be his own creative island. GenX hackers and IPO dealmakers have taken this new high-tech individualism and exploited its bottom line. Now Millennial teens are using computers to do group projects and communicate among networks of friends. For this generation, computers are definitely fun - but not necessarily liberating. In software ads, adults are shown solo near the monitor, but the kids are shown in groups. As more of them spend a growing share of the day at on-line computers equipped with Instant Messaging and "buddy lists", Millennials can stay in almost uninterrupted contact with each other - at home, on vacation, wherever. On-line or off, Millennials usually maneuver in teams and under adult supervision, far beyond anything Boomers or Gen Xers ever encountered with the technologies of their own child or teen years.» (Howe, 2000: 275)
«Generational self-perception begins to dawn during adolescence and typically takes full shape during and immediately after collegiate, military, marriage, or initial work experience» (Howe, 2000: 41)
«Today's teens want a name that is a founding word, a word that respects their newness, a word that resets the clock of secular history around their timetable. "Millennial" acknowledges their technological superiority without defining them too explicitly in those terms. It's a name that hints at what their rising generation could grow up to become - not a lame variation on old Boomer/Xer themes, but a new force of history, a generational colossus far more consequential than most of today's parents and teachers (and, indeed, most kids) dare imagine» (Howe, 2000: 12)
«"Several thousand people sent suggestions to abcnews.com. Some thought that gen.com would be a good idea. Others said Generation Y, Generation Whatever. Gen-D was one. The Boomlets. The Prozac Generation. When everyone got talking about it online, the second-largest number thought there should be no label at all, and the greatest interest was in the Millennium Generation, or the Millennials." -Peter Jennings, ABC World News Tonight, 12/19/97.
TOP TEN SUGGESTED NAMES (abc.com poll):
2. "Don't label Us"
3. Generation Y (or Why?)
4. Generation Tech
5. Generation Next
6. Generation .com
7. Generation 2000
8. Echo Boom
9. Boomer Babies
10. Generation XX»
(Howe, 2000: 6)
«By a margin of over four to one, the teens in our survey preferred "Millennial" over "Y".(Howe, 2000: 12)
«Ser jovem tornou-se numa aspiração, numa pressão da sociedade ocidental, que está a envelhecer ano após ano. As mudanças demográficas estão a provocar alterações profundas em termos económicos e sociais, com repercussões nas atitudes e comportamentos dos indivíduos. Uma das alterações mais visíveis é o adulto que se comporta eternamente como jovem. A valorização exacerbada de tudo o que é jovem advém da importância desta faixa etária em termos económicos (poder de compra e faceta altamente consumista), mas essencialmente, do poder de influência e persuasão que tem junto da sua (enorme) rede de amigos e familiares. (...) O estudo da Publicis permite ver além das aparências. Os jovens manifestam comportamentos complexos e incoerentes, mas apenas ao olhos dos adultos: vulneráveis, mas poderosos (dependentes, mas influenciadores da sociedade e do mercado); intimidade no anonimato (net); saudáveis, mas pouco (rejeitam junk food e consomem drogas e álcool); críticos mas mega-consumidores; individualistas, mas integrados no todo (egoístas e altruístas). Estes comportamentos paradoxais espelham, de certa forma, uma sociedade cheia de contradições: mais eficiente devido à tecnologia, mas com menos tempo disponível; sem tabus, mas a um preço demasiado elevado (ex.: Sida). Não obstante o comportamento paradoxal, as motivações dos jovens são extremamente consistentes e duradouras.»
fonte: Estudo TWEENS traça perfil dos jovens portugueses, Sapo Mulher, Març08
Nos Estados Unidos, a expressão Millennials é muito abundante e serve para descrever todos aqueles que nasceram depois de 1980. É uma expressão sobretudo demográfica, ainda que muitas vezes usada em diversos contextos sociais, e corresponde a um alinhamento sequencial de classificação de gerações muito tradicional nos Estados Unidos.
A expressão foi criada por «Strauss and Howe (William Strauss and Neil Howe) are authors and speakers known for their theories about a recurrent cycle of generations in history. The two have co-authored a number of books on the subject and have a publishing, speaking and consulting company called Life Course Associates» (wikipedia); «The Fourth Turning (1997) is the third book by William Strauss and Neil Howe. It expands the theory they presented in their first book Generations by examining the generations in Anglo-American history since the War of the Roses (1459-1487). It classifies every generation into an archetype explaining the function, motivation and course of each. The second half of the book specifically looks at the five most recent generations (G.I., Silent, Boomers, 13th and Millennial)»
«Meet the Millennials, born in or after 1982 (...) » (Howe, 2000: 4); nascidos até 2002 (pag 41)
«The first Millennial babies were born in 1982, walked in 1983, talked in 1984, reached kindergarten in 1987, and entered middle school in 1994 and high school in 1996.» (Howe, 2000: 309)
«Young people are increasingly able to switch between different technological platforms and different contents (both those created by media companies and user generated contents). And they are engaged in redefining their relationship with media, in terms of both the social role played by media and the technologies, places, times, patterns and rituals of consumption practices» (Mascheroni, 2008: 29)
«Young Italians are part of the so-called "web 2.0 generation" or "iPod generation" and are actively participating in the processes of transnational media consumption.» (Mascheroni, 2008: 30)
Mascheroni et al no seu estudo Young italians' cross media cultures criam uma amostra que vai desde pré-adolescentes (11-13), passando pelos adolescentes (14-18), continuando com os jovens (19-24) e terminando nos jovens-adultos (25-35).
(ou seja, nascidos entre 1973 e 1977)
«At Boulder-based iggli Inc., 18- to 24-year-old employees occupy the driver's seat.
«In terms of interpersonal relationships, an observational study of children's home use of the computer determined that 'online communition was usually not a substitute for interpersonal communication; rather, both often occurred simultaneously' (Orleans and Laney, 2000; 65). Lievrouw e Livingstone, 2006: 49
«The Net generation may well be more literate, creative and socially skilled because of their early familiarity with the Internet, including trying out various aspects of their developing identity online» (Rice, 2006: 108)
«Music a soundtrack to everyday life. It is the 'amniotic fluid' in which young people's identity develops. The ever-present nature of music, and its reign through clubbing, led us to consider music as dominant among young people's practices. What people do, how they act and spend their resources, expresses the values and priorities. (...) We can expect that the ways in which your people use music and clubbing will make sense in the light of how they understand themselves and the world. In short, we found that the listening habits of our young people suggest a 'mirror' to the self. Music is generally chosen to reflect what young people are already feeling. It reflects rather than forms their attitudes. (...) Young people usually listen to music while doing something else. It provides a familiar, ever-present 'soundscape'» (Cray, 2006: 78)
«(...) can we talk about young people as a coherent group? It is here that we find the idea of generations particularly helpful. Generations can be understood in a number of ways, but here we draw on Karl Mannheim's view that a 'generation' refers to a group of peoplewvho experience and respond to specific social-historical conditions in common ways, depending in part on age. In other words, people growing up, living through and responding to particular historical events, political structures, dominant ideologies and technical developments together form a generation with a shared world view that distinguishes them from other generations. For Mannheim, it is the events, ideas and experiences encountered by young people between the ages of 17 to 25 that particularly shape their generation. Writers differ in terms of the labels and birth year boundaries they apply to particular generations. but they are usually periods bout 20 years. (Karl Mannheim. 'The problem of generations'. in Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1952, pp. 276-320) (Cray, 2006: 5)
«To try to answer these questions we began a research project into the world view of Generation Y, those aged 15 to 25. (...)together analysed young people's conversations as they responded to music, clubbing, films, TV soaps and culturally iconic images.»(Cray, 2006: 3)
«Techno-savvy Yers are now usurping "intectual authority" in their homes and classrooms, leaving parents and teachers both confused and awed. (...) They're proud owners of impressive electronic portfolios filled with website designs, home pages, and Internet resource guides. They know how to use the Internet as efficiently as older generations used the library, but in this case, gaining instant access to people, events, and ideas (...) Gen Yers are wired for the future. Slow, unwieldy processes are out; streamlining is in. "One size fits all" is out; customization of anything is in. Passive learning is out; interactivity is in.» (Martin e Tulgan, 2001: 6)
«Gen Yers want technology - and everything else - right now. Gen Xers are in a hurry, no doubt; they want to know what you have to offer them next week. But Gen Yers want to know what you have to offer them right now. Remember, whereas Gen X grew up witnessing Moore's Law-"Technology doubles every two years"- in action, by the time Gen Y was entering its teenage years, technology was beginning to outpace that law. Most Gen Yers have been using computers since preschool and can dazzle the greatest techies of Gen X; with that skill comes an expectation of immediacy» (18) Of course, youthful impatience is something common to every generation as it comes of age. But Yers often exhibit distinctive, healthy impatience when their tasks and responsibilities are at stake» (21)
«Generation Y is a technological generation that takes computers, emailing, text messaging and the Internet for granted. This is particularly interesting from our point of view since the digital revolution has enabled the further expansion and diversification of popular culture» (CRay, 2006: 7)
«These 29 million young people will make the next major impact on the work place. Already they're posing new challenges to business leaders and managers, who are spending more time, more energy, and more money than ever before recruiting and training the young talent they need to compete in today's high-speed, high-tech world.»(Martin e Tulgan, 2001: xi)
«Demographers have also been unable to agree on the new generation's exact parameters. Those who refer to Gen Yers as "Echo Boomers," children of the baby boomers, identify this generation as a huge one, spanning 20 years om 1978 to 1998. Others cut the gap to 10 years, defining Gen Yers as those born between 1978 and 1988. Both views are problematic. Since a generation is an identifiable age group with a shared historical experience, the time span of each new generation shortens as the pace of change accelerates. (...) If we are to define the next generational group, or cohort, any meaningful way, the time span must be shorter still, no more than seven years. That is why we have focused this study on those born between 1978 and 1984»(Martin e Tulgan, 2001: xii)
«Demographers, unable to agree on a defining label for this generation, have called them the Millenniums, Genation www, the Digital Generation, Generation E, Echo Bomers, N-Gens, and, most often, Generation Y. Ask these young people to define themselves, though, and will hear something far more creative: the Non-Nuclear Family Generation, the Nothing-Is-Sacred Generation, the Wannabes, the Feel Good Generation, CyberKids, the Do-or-Die Generation, the Searching-for-an-Identity Generation. .»(Martin e Tulgan, 2001: xi)
«Em 2006, a EMI, uma das quatro maiores editoras do mundo, convidou alguns adolescentes para ir à sua sede para conversar com os executivos sobre os seus hábitos musicais. No final do encontro, os directores da EMI agradeceram os comentários e convidaram os adolescentes a escolher à vontade os CD que estavam amontados em cima de uma mesa. No entanto, nenhum dos adolescentes quis qualquer CD, muito embora fossem de graça. ‘Foi neste momento que percebemos que o jogo estava completamente perdido’, disse uma pessoa que estava no encontro.» («IN 2006 EMI, the world's fourth-biggest recorded-music company, invited some teenagers into its headquarters in London to talk to its top managers about their listening habits. At the end of the session the EMI bosses thanked them for their comments and told them to help themselves to a big pile of CDs sitting on a table. But none of the teens took any of the CDs, even though they were free. “That was the moment we realised the game was completely up,” says a person who was there.»
fonte: From major to minor Jan 10th 2008 From The Economist print edition
The survey, commissioned by Robert Half International and Yahoo! HotJobs, examines the professional priorities of the most senior members of Generation Y or the “Millennials” -- those who have already started a career or will soon start one. More than 1,000 adults between the ages of 21 and 28 were polled for the project. The findings are available in a report, What Millennial Workers Want: How to Attract and Retain Gen Y Employees.
«Everett M. Rogers in his 1962 book, Diffusion of Innovations, theorized that innovations would spread through society in an S curve, as the early adopters select the technology first, followed by the majority, until a technology or innovation is common.
The speed of technology adoption is determined by two characteristics p, which is the speed at which adoption takes off, and q, the speed at which later growth occurs. A cheaper technology might have a higher p, for example, taking off more quickly, while a technology that has network effects (like a fax machine, where the value of the item increases as others get it) may have a higher q.» (wikipedia)
«An Arbitron/Edison Media Research study that included ages 12 and older found that 22% of those Americans owned an MP3 player in 2006 (Rose & Lenski, 2006). The study further noted that, between 2005 and 2006, growth of ownership of the technology was especially high among 12-17 -year-olds. Affinity for the iPod, in paricular, was also noteworthy, with 45% of all respondents indicating that they '''love' using the device" (Rose & Lenski, 2006, p. 8) (...). In comparison, less than a quarter (21%) of respondents said they loved "local AM/FM radio" (p. 8).» (Ferguson, 2007: 104)
Um estudo de David Alan Free mostra «Most (94%) of the respondents listened to AM and FM radio, which was
«As for listening to AM/FM radio, 50.2% of the sample reported they never listen to terrestrial radio; 26% reported they listen less than an hour a day; 8.6% indicated they listen to radio 1-2 hours a day, and less than 1% (.9) reported listening more than 2 hours a day. Respondents were also asked to rate AM/FM, MP3, streaming or Internet-only radio anda satellite radio in their ability to provide them with entertainment using a five point scale (1 = very poor; 5 = very good). Respondents rated the MP3 the highest with a mean of 3.95, followed by satellite radio (2.95), streaming via the Internet (2.86) and AM/FM last (2.67)» (ALbarran, 2007: 97)
«Respondents were asked to identify which of the four technologies they would keep for their music listening if they could only choose one. The sample again showed a strong preference for the MP3 compared to other technologies. Approximately 68.4°% indicated they would keep their MP3; 21.4% of the respondents indicated they would keep AM/FM; only 4% streaming media, and 5.6% would keep satellite radio» (98)
with nearly 50% of the sample indicating they never listen to rad io, this is extremely problematic for an industry that has a long history of cultivating young listeners. The focus groups revealed a number of negative perceptions about radio that are reflected among society: too many commercial interruptions, tooliute variety in music, and too much industry consolidation so that all stations sound the same. (...)rythjng but news, it will have major implications for the medium in terms of pro:ramming, its abil ity to attract advertising, and its long-term future. Radio is still perceived as a good second choice to the MP3, but as these audiences age will they still perceive radio as serving only these limited needs?» (99)
ATENÇÂO Ao factor moda; que pode enviesar os resultados actuais; daqui a alguns anos esta tecnologia não será tão presente e necessaria?
«Early adopters of MP3 technology have been shown to be the reatest threat facing radio (Bachman, 2005). Eighty-five percent of a sample in ñe tudy would choose an MP3 player over traditional radio as their preferred listening )ourcFifty percent listened to Internet radio and spent more time with this format than they were six month ago. Fifty-four percent claimed there is no radio station in heir area that played music they wished to hear ("How to make music more," 2005).(...) , Book and Grady (2005) found that adoption of alternate med i a forms by rad i 0 listeners occu rred mostly among those who ere highly dissatisfied with traditional terrestrial radio programm ing. Once theses I iseners adopted new media forms, they reduced their radio listening time by 61 %.» (Albarran, 2007: 95)
«A comparison of radio use between owners and non-owners of iPods yielded a significant difference, suggesting that iPod use substitutes for time spent listing to the radio (...). Radio use for respondents without iPods was about two and a half hours, (...) but radio use for iPod owners was over an hour less» (FErguson, 2007: 114)
««The Arbitron Company, in conjunction with Edison Media Research (Arbitron Study, 1999), conducted a large telephone survey of more than 1000 Arbitron diary keepers. Among the stated goals of this "spot load" study was to probe listener perceptions toward radio advertising. (...) This study also concedes that young people (ages 12 to 24) are more likely to switch stations due to commercial avoidance» (McDowell and Dick, 2003: 52); «Furthermore, Abernathy (1 991) did not delve into other plausible motivations for switching stations. Also, the study's sample base was a "demographically homogeneous" group of young student volunteers. Based on the findings of other studies, young people tend to change stations more often than older people.» (53)
«(...)compared to older persons in this study, younger respondents were (a) more likely to switch stations (b) more likely to avoid commercials, and (c) avoid an undesirable song. On the other hand, there was also support for the idea that older people tended to avoid announcers and newscasts» (59)
«"Overall listening among youth demographics has stabilized."Dear Lisa Chiljean: from your lips to God’s ear, as they used to say. That would be a lovely trend to see. The Clear Channel Katz Advantage VP/Director of Media Research says radio still plays a solid role with younger audiences: "This group connects with favorite personalities and formats, and radio is the place they go to learn about new music." But "they are also the technology generation, and as this group has spent more time with new technologies, their time with radio has lessened a bit over the years." But "for the first time in years, we noticed that this trend has slowed", as of the Fall Arbitron survey. Some evidence: urban is stable at 7%. Alternative/modern rock is even at 3.1%. CHR is steady at 6.8%. Rhythmic CHR stays at 4.2%. »
Taylor on radio info, 29/02/08 "Overall listening among youth demographics has stabilized
«Parents are getting more and more time starved, and they treat their children more like adults than the previous generation of parents did." (Mike Gatti, executive vice president of the Retail Advertising & Marketing Association, a division of the National Retail Federation, Washington, D.C. (www .rama-nrf.org).
Marketers need to both recognize and take advantage of the fact technology is a huge part of young peoples' lives, Gatti notes (...) You need to talk to young people at their level, understanding they are very Internet savvy and they use all kinds of media simultaneously," Gatti says. "They might be instant messaging on their computer or text messaging on their phones while they're watching their favorite TV show. Mobile promotions are going to become a very significant marketing tool to reach the youth segment. »
fonte:Marketing to the future: reaching teens and young adults requires a radically different approach.By Kruger, Jennifer Barr, September 1 2005
«There's a new, easy-to-install program called Adblock Plus that could become what the modern day "clicker" is to TV and the seek buttons are to drivers looking to change radio stations seamlessly.
Jerry Del Collianno, Ad Blocking 22/02/08
«Here, then, are six lessons I've learned about what it takes to get the best performance from a sophomore.
1. ELIMINATE AMBIGUITY.Millennials are experts at calculating what it takes to meet expectations. Once locked in, they have a GPS-like approach to navigating toward the goal. I have learned that the flip side of this laser-like focus is a lack of patience for any hint that the rules are being changed midstream.
fonte: «Get the Best Out of Millennials by Tweaking Habits», AdAge,By Carol Phillips Published: February 11, 2008
«El adulto cada vez más infantilizado y el niño cada vez más adultizado, lo que se puede observar sobre todo en preadolescentes que tienen pautas de jóvenes y en jóvenes que plantean reivindicaciones de adultos » (por acção dos meios de massas, sobretudo a televisão) NOriega, 1997: 416
«Utilizar únicamente la variable edad es engañoso porque no se puede hablar de juventude, sino de jóvenes de determinadas características en oposición a otros jóvenes, al menos tanto como a otros sectores sociales.» (Noriega, 1997: 417)
«El joven producto del audiovisual de masas a) busca el sentido de lo concreto y se ve seducido por lo inmediato; b) tiene una visión hedonista de la vida; c) predominan en él los valores afectivos y estéticos por encima de la lógica racional o ética; d) tienen dificultad en concretar los ideales, vertebrarlos y, por supuesto, llevarlos a cabo e) desprecian la historia porque no existe más que el presente; o f) tienen gran capacidad de admiración y de intuición de qué es lo nuevo. El modelo electrónico de joven obedece a un canon de belleza y de atuendo muy señalados» (Noriega, 417-418)
«Parece como si las televisiones pensasen que los jóvenes sólo tuvieran interés por la música y algunos objetos de consumo que se identifican con la la «cultura juvenil». Lo que ofrecen las programaciones como específico de los jóvenes aparece bajo el síndrome de Peter Pan: si, por definición, ser joven es vivir en un estado de transición en tensión entre la infancia y la adultez, las televisiones quieren prorrogar indefinidamente ese momento como estado de felicidad despreocupada: se vive al día, en un clima de permanente felicidad despreocupada: se vive al día, en un clima de aventura, de diversión amable y humorística bajo la protección de las deidades del videoclip y el escenario cosmopolita (...)» (Noriega, 418)
«La imagen de joven en los medios de masa es, sin duda, un modelo importante para la construcción de la propia identidad. De hecho, los jóvenes consideran como las experiencias más significativas de sus vidas las de tipo cultural, por encima de las espirituales o místicas, religiosas, parapsicológicas, sexuales, amorosas, de relaciones interpersoanales, políticas, etc.» (Noriega, 419)
«Para los niños la televisión es el primer gran instrumento de apertura al mundo, a las culturas más lejanas y a las experiencias que están a la base de la civilización adulta. La televisión es, según la recurrente metáfora de «aula sin muros», un medio con mayor poder que la escuela, aunque carezca de la interactividad, reflexividad y socialización que sólo ésta puede proporcionar para una maduración intelectual Y psicológica satisfactonas» (Noriega, 1997: 409)
«A recent JackMyers survey of nearly 500 teens aged 15 to 17 found that 37 percent report they frequently or occasionally view news and/or sports videos on their cell phones and 73.5 percent frequently or occasionally send text messages from their cell phone. Thirty-seven percent say they are likely to pay attention to video advertising on cell phones and 31 percent are likely to pay attention to text advertising on cell phones. (fonte)
«"Are you getting the new audience? The iPod generation?" Wired magazine author Chris Anderson and "Long Tail" author Chris Anderson starts an effective keynote speech explaining radio’s creation of "the notion of a common culture" that was "suddenly synchronized around this top-down delivery" of content, starting in the 1920s. That template of a mass medium – a homogeneous culture created by relatively few sources of content – ended in the late 1990s. That’s because "the Internet allows you to reach everybody with an infinite amount of content for free." (Anderson’s forthcoming book is titled "Free", about how content creators need to create ways to get paid for their free content.) Anderson answers a question about who’s responding best to the new imperative to narrowcast or even "slivercast", and he says it’s "advertising." Though not his own business of magazines, or books, or broadcasting. As for radio, "this is the only medium that’s translated to online virtually unchanged. The core product – free music and spoken word – is undiminished in popularity, and vastly increased in reach." But radio’s no longer got anything like a monopoly on supplying either music or talk. Anderson concludes "the business model must change."
fonte: "Are you getting the new audience? The iPod generation?", Taylor On Radio-Info, 13/02/08
«Rogers (1962) identified five types of adopters, the first two being catalytic ‘Change Agents’: innovators (2.5% on average), early adopters (13.5%), members of the early majority (34%), members of the late majority (34%), and laggards (16%).» Lehman, 2004:709
«We should note that ‘50 percent’ follows from Rogers’ diffusion of innovations model: the first three categories together (innovators 2.5%, early adopters 13.5%, and members of the early majority 34%) equal precisely 50 percent. Certainly, when half the public uses a medium we can safely say that it is no longer marginal.? (Lehman, 2004:714)
«In 1995, about 95% of the 14-to 29-year-olds listened to the radio at least once every two weeks. Three-quarters of that population listened to the radio every day. The average daily listening time (between 5 a.m. and midnight) was 117 minutes. Over the years, radio listening time has been declining slightly, but radio still competes actively with television for the prime position in adolescent media preferences (Berg & Kiefer, 1996; Keller & Klingler,1995; Munch & Boehnke, 1996).»
(Boehnke, 2002: 195)
«The other big audience challenge is youth. Most of my generation grew up with radio. Memories of that first car, that first cigarette, that first pint of heavy, are for many of us inextricably bound up with particular pieces of music, particular radio programmes or DJs. Today, while television can still capture children up to their early teens and the challenge is simply getting them back in their twenties, for radio, is there a generation growing up who are simply not introduced to the habit and may thus not get the point as they mature. Two thirds of today’s young mobile users have their phones on and within easy reach for between 21 and 24 hours a day. I earnestly hope that radio- possibly using the mobile as delivery medium - can capture at least some of that time», Stephen A Carter (Chief Executive, Ofcom), The Radio Festival - Certainty or Security? The Path to Digital 04|07|05
« (...) despite its obvious strengths, radio listening amongst 15–24-year-olds has fallen over recent years in both the UK and the USA, with various factors being blamed for falling audiences. In 2004, the UK’s Broadcast and Telecommunications regulator – OFCOM – commissioned a report into the so called ‘iPod Generation’ and the report made uncomfortable reading for traditional broadcasters. The report revealed what radio academics already knew from talking to students, that the medium was no longer offering them what they wanted and that ‘younger people are listening to the radio noticeably less than their parents’ (OFCOM/The Knowledge Agency, 2004: 5). Not only that but they are fussier in their listening habits and choices and they were turning off ‘faceless presenters’ and a ‘playlist culture’ in favour of their own music, in their own way (OFCOM/The Knowledge Agency, 2004). It seems as though the ‘wirefree’ generation is growing up without the radio habit enjoyed by the previous generation and that offers a threat to broadcast radio (Carter, 2005).» (Berry, 2006: 148)
«Important listening shifts have been taking place in recent years: Overall, the percentage of both men and women listening to radio at least once per week gradually decreased between Spring 2002 and Spring 2006. The biggest declines took place among Teens, Men 18-24 and Women 18-24. For both Teen boys and girls, the largest dropoff was from 7PM to midnight, down 9% over those four years, though afternoons and weekends also were off 4% to 5%.» fonte: Radio Today 2007, Arbitron, pag 97
«Owing to numerous media alternatives available, overall time spent listening (TSL) has slipped 13% between 1998 and 2006, but less than an hour in the four years from 2002 to 2006. The largest erosion since 1998 for men has been with 18-24s, with a decline of 17%; for women, the largest decline has been among Teens, whose TSL has decreased 23%. »
fonte: Radio Today 2007, Arbitron, pag 91
«In the 2000s it’s the music that young listeners are sharing among themselves that radio seems to systematically ignore. Herein lies a great new format opportunity. “Paragon Media Strategies research into Youth Radio makes clear that there is a body of music that has reached gestation. Whether it be called ‘Indie’ music or ‘music that my friends and I like that isn’t on the radio,’ there’s a format out there. Check out Last.FM and see what this generation is doing in forming their own library.“Concentrating on this body of music—which also contains a lot of new music—would address pleas research respondents make to radio, and it would shore up one of radio’s big unique selling propositions: introducing listeners to new music…
“14-24 year olds are actively designing radio that’s not on the radio. The average (median) young adult has 500 songs on their computer, 400 songs on their MP3 player, and 50 CDs. 14-18 year-olds have more than double the number of songs that 19-24s have on their computers and MP3 players… Young music consumers are already creating their own ‘radio stations’ by creating playlists on their iPod.»
fonte: «A Once In A Generation Format Opportunity», Paragon Media Strategies, 17/01/08
«(...) Who is watching all this homegrown video?
Harris Interactive asked US adult Internet users about the types of online video they would like to see more. The supply of UGV was apparently sufficient for most of those surveyed, since it drew the lowest response rates. However, young adults were most likely to want more user-generated video.
An even more detailed picture of UGV viewer demographics came from the "Annual Gadgets Survey 2007" by the Pew Internet & American Life Project, which profiled active adult users of video-sharing sites where many UGVs are hosted. Pew found that more than half of these site visitors were 18 to 29 years old. (...)»
fonte: «Who's Watching User-Generated Video?», eMarkeeter, JANUARY 24, 2008
«(...) Young people have voted again and again in this race that they want to own their music not rent it or listen through a glorified subscription or ad-supported service.
«The Pew study also captured demographics for active video-sharing site users. As might be expected, they skewed younger.
"The fact that younger Internet users are far more likely to be regular visitors to video-sharing sites points to a fork in the road,” said David Hallerman, senior analyst at eMarketer. "On the one hand, marketers looking to target the under-30 demographic can more reliably find them on these video sites. "On the other hand, the door is open for big content providers—mainly the TV networks, both broadcast and cable—to bulk up their online offerings, both in quantity and quality," Hallerman said. He also said that such counter programming could help attract the over-30 audience, which is accustomed to traditional TV content. Such content could draw ad dollars from marketers who want online-video ad inventory that is consistently appropriate for marketing, as opposed to a lot of user-generated content found on video-sharing sites. »
fonte: «Young Adults Hit Online Video Sites», eMarketeer, JANUARY 15, 2008
«Radio is often relegated to a secondary media choice, and an alarming number of Bedroomers do not have (or rarely use) an AM/FM radio in their homes. In some of the interviews, radio is a nonfactor until the required trip to the car. For those who don’t have a radio in their primary dwelling, its role in their overall media/entertainment scheme is minimal. For everyone else, there is typically more enthusiasm about other entertainment choices and newer technologies. Radio’s lack of CVC (control, variety, and choice), combined with perceptions of excessive commercials and being “old school”—often drops its status among other media. As noted, most of the meaningful radio discussions in these interviews occurred when we visited the respondents’ vehicles. To that end, radio’s traditional listening locations are being threatened by new devices. Portability has been usurped by personal MP3 players, in-home radio listenership is overshadowed by myriad gadgets, and even in-car listening is being challenged by current and future MP3 connectivity.»
A proposito deste estudo, os autores chamam bedroomers aos jovens (18-28 anos):
«Additionally, interviewees were single, college students, young professionals, married, and married with children. Living situations included respondents in dormitories, students living off-campus, in apartments, homes, fraternity houses, and living with parents. We found that much of their time with technology was spent in their bedrooms, which not only gave us the name for this study—The Bedroom Project—but also the name “Bedroomers” for this generation»
«Os europeus já preferem a Internet à televisão. De acordo com um estudo de preferências dos media, realizado pela Associação Europeia de Publicidade Interactiva (EIAA, na sigla em inglês), os jovens, principalmente, passam mais tempo na Internet do que em frente à televisão. Esta é a primeira vez que a televisão fica relegada ao segundo lugar no estudo, realizado anualmente desde 2003. Realizado com mais de sete mil pessoas, em dez países europeus, o estudo mostra que os jovens entre 16 e 24 anos agora passam dez por cento a mais do tempo ligados à Internet do que em frente à televisão. O estudo revela ainda que 96 por cento dos inquiridos reduziram a utilização de outros meios de comunicação por causa da Internet, tendo sido a televisão a mais prejudicada: 40 por cento dos europeus vêem menos televisão e 28 por cento lêem menos jornais. Por outro lado, o estudo indica que a televisão online se está a tornar mais popular, tendo aumentado o visionamento de filmes e telediscos online, pelo menos uma vez por mês, em 150 por cento desde 2006. A isto se deve também a expansão da banda larga: 81 por cento de todos os utilizadores de Internet já usam este tipo de conexão. Actualmente, 57 por cento dos europeus acedem a Internet regularmente, por semana; o equivalente a 169 milhões de pessoas, um aumento de seis por cento em relação ao ano anterior. Desde 2006, o número de pessoas com mais de 55 anos que utilizam a rede aumentou em 12 por cento e o de mulheres subiu oito por cento.Também a frequência com que os europeus acedem à rede aumentou: 75 por cento dos utilizadores de Internet ligam-se à web entre cinco e sete dias por semana, um aumento de 61 por cento em comparação com 2004.»
fonte: «Europeus já preferem Internet à televisão, cienciapt, 12/12/07
«Arbitron’s Pierre Bouvard says there’s been big progress among 18-24s, and they plan to begin applying those lessons and techniques to 25-34s. Their plan will go into motion next month, when Arbitron’s internal software systems will begin working to increase sampling rates and incentives paid to panelists in the demo. Bouvard predicts Philadelphia and New York will “start to see some growth” by the end of the first quarter» fonte: «"25-34 is going to be our focus."», Inside Radio, 4/1/08
«NEW YORK (Hollywood Reporter) - About 38 percent of U.S. consumers are watching TV shows online, 36 percent use their cell phones as entertainment devices and 45 percent are creating online content like Web sites, music, videos and blogs for others, according to a new-media survey from Deloitte & Touche. The findings of the online survey of 2,081 Americans, conducted October 25-31, were provided to The Hollywood Reporter before their official release next month. The "State of the Media Democracy" notes that in Deloitte's first edition of the survey just eight months earlier, 24 percent of consumers used their cell phones as entertainment devices, meaning that usage has soared 50 percent.
About 62 percent of "millennials" (consumers 13-to-24-years-old) are using their cell phones as entertainment devices, up from 46 percent in the previous study conducted February 23-March 6, 2007. And among Generation X consumers (25-to-41-year-olds), the number grew to 47 percent from 29 percent in the earlier survey.
About 20 percent of consumers said they are viewing video content on their cell phones daily or almost daily. The percentage of consumers watching TV online jumped from the 23 percent figure reported in the previous study. Roughly 54 percent of those surveyed said they are making their own entertainment content through editing photos, videos or music, 45 percent said they are producing that content for others to see, and 32 percent said they consider themselves to be "broadcasters" of their own media. "I think for advertisers one of the conclusions is you don't make decisions to advertise either on television or the Internet when you want to hit all the demographics, but rather you need to have a multiplatform strategy," said Ken August, vice chairman and national sector leader for Deloitte & Touche's media and entertainment practice, which commissioned the study. "It shouldn't be an either or proposition."»
fonte: «Americans more wired: survey» Reuters, Gail Schiller Fri Dec 28, 2007
«(...) Given the popularity of mobile phones and social networking among teens, it is not a giant leap to expect them to use the two technologies together. Early data suggest that is the next step. "Mobile social networking is predominantly a young consumer’s game," said John du Pre Gauntt, senior analyst at eMarketer. He cited a June 2007 M:Metrics study that found that users under 25 were the most active on mobile social networks, accessing sites daily or several times a week. "The next question is whether early adopters gather at mobile-only social networking destinations or if they are extending their existing social networking relationships to mobile," Gauntt said. "Here, the evidence is well in favor of the latter."» fonte: Teens Primed for Mobile Social Networks, eMarketeer, JANUARY 3, 2008
«Social networking is an activity that 37% of US adult Internet users and 70% of online teens engage in every month, and the numbers continue to grow. eMarketer projects that by 2011, one-half of online adults and 84% of online teens in the US will use social networking»
Do estudo Bedroom Project («No demographic presents more challenges—and more untapped opportunities—to broadcasters than 17- to 28-year-olds»:
«Why is this important when all anyone cares about is 25-54? These are the years when media habits and loyalties are formed; These are the years when music becomes so much more important to most; These are the years when radio usage typically increases dramatically; All will eventually turn 25
-12-24 are the years when people dramatically increase their radio listening. The evidence suggests that this current cohort of 12-24s are not increasing by nearly as much as previous groups
«The Nielsen Company today released the findings of an in-depth study on the mobile media and cross media behavior of U.S. "tweens" (ages 8-12). The report estimates that: 35% of tweens own a mobile phone. (...) While text-messaging and ringtones remain the most pervasive non-voice functions on the phone, other content such as downloaded wallpapers, music, games and Internet access also rank highly among tweens. According to Nielsen, 5% of tweens access the Internet over their phone each month. While 41% of tween mobile Internet users say they do so while commuting or traveling (to school, for example), mobile content such as the Internet is also a social medium for this audience: 26% of tween mobile Internet users say they access the web while at a friend's house and 17% say they do so at social events. The report, "Kids on the Go: Mobile Usage by U.S. Teens and Tweens," was conducted by Nielsen Mobile and BASES, two services of Nielsen. It also provides insights on teen and tween use of specific content brands, genre preferences, overall use of leisure time and demographic profiles. The full report will be released on December 14.The Nielsen Company today released the findings of an in-depth study on the mobile media and cross media behavior of U.S. "tweens" (ages 8-12). »
fonte: «35% of U.S. Tweens Own a Mobile Phone, According to Nielsen», 3/12/07
«The Demand for User-Generated Content: Content may be king, but industry-created content has got stiff competition. User-generated content is in tremdendous demand across the generations, with half of all consumers (51%) watching and/or reading content created by others. And, while Millennials are at the forefront of this trend, Xers, Boomers and Matures are also participating.• 51% of all consumers are watching/reading personal content created by others; the number jumps to 71% for Millennials.• 55% of Millennials and 42% of Xers read blogs, while 62% of Millennials and 41% of Xers watch YouTube or other video streaming sites.• 40% of all consumers are creating their own entertainment, such as editing movies, music and photos. Millennials may be the majority of the creators at 56%, but Matures are also participating – 25% of them report creating their own entertainment.»
«Marketers are fascinated by Gen Y's youngest cohort, the Millennials -- and with good reason: They are an important market today and will become even more important as they graduate, start jobs, marry and establish households.
How to communicate effectively with Millennials is the topic of many research studies. We are told what they read (magazines) and what they don't read (newspapers), which brands they love (Apple) and which ones they hate (anything "too corporate"), devices they use (iPods and cellphones) and don't use (CD players). There are articles on how they communicate (Facebook) and don't communicate (e-mail) and where they get their news ("The Daily Show"). We learn that they are not like us in their views of the world (they've never experienced a presidential election without a Bush or a Clinton in the running). Most ominously, we are informed that they have lived in a media-saturated world from a young age. Consequently, they are clued in to -- and tuned out of -- marketers' most ingenious means of influence»
«Summer book Persons Using Radio (PUR) numbers declined to their lowest level since Arbitron began keeping statistics in Fall 1998. Radio usage dropped in every cell except 50-54s. Steepest declines continue to be among teenagers and young adults, as their attention is increasingly diverted to other media. That’s especially true among males, with Men 18-24 and 18-34 cells posting the biggest year-over-year declines. But the crowded media world is also taking a toll on the 25-54 money demo, which fell 15.1-14.9. There’s also a disturbing trend among female demos. In the Summer book not a single female cell saw an increase in listening. All but two (50-54 and 65+) declined. Compare that to male demos. While older women mirror the trend of listening less, the Summer book shows Men 45-64 were listening to the radio more» (Inside Radio, via Hear2.0)
E a reflexão de Mark Ramsey: «Listener who grow up with access to digital media are forever changed. They will not "grow into" us - we must "grow into" them. Or else the radio will eventually become your father's Oldsmobile». O texto total é este: «(...)the attitudes about radio and the usage of radio among persons under 35 - and especially under 25 - are dramatically different. Listener who grow up with access to digital media are forever changed. They will not "grow into" us - we must "grow into" them. The problem is this: It's easier to score 25-54 when a format scores 35-54 because it's easier to score 35-54 than younger. But if the entire radio industry begins to chase persons over 35 - as it is doing right now - then this is a one-way journey for us all. In a sense, radio is like smoking: If we don't create the habit when kids are young, we won't have the habit at all when they get older. And creating that habit is about more than targeting their music needs. We need to target the entire portfolio of their interests if we're to be viewed as relevant.This is one of those realities which will sneak up on us slowly until one day when we stand back and realize that but for one or two stations in any given market we no longer have a foot in the future.»
«El consumo medio diario de televisión y radio en España es de cinco horas y media por persona, según el miembro del grupo de investigación Civértice y especialista en pantallas de ocio digital, Jesús Juan Pardo.
En una conferencia ofrecida en la apertura del Foro Univ 2008 en la Universidad de Navarra, este experto desmitificó la idea de que los jóvenes son los que más televisión ven y señaló que su consumo no llega a las dos horas y media «porque la opción televisiva no 'cabe', ya que tienen que estudiar, estar con sus amigos o hacer deporte, y además cuentan con otros medios como Internet, el mp3, los teléfonos móviles o los vídeojuegos».»
fonte: «El consumo de radio y televisión por persona y día en España es de 5,5 horas»,La voz de la galicia/ efe, 8/11/2007
Conclusões essenciais do estudo Broadcast Architecture, da Broadcast Architecture, apresentado no NAB Europe 2006:
1) In a sample of close to 5000 people, 36.3% of adults aged 15 to 60 own an Ipod or MP3 player. - 39.6% Male / 32.6% Female; - 47.9% of 15 to 29-year-olds; - 44.9% of 15 to 34-year-olds;
2) Since acquiring an Ipod or MP3 player, 18.8% (total), 26.6% (15-29), and 23.3% (15-34) indicated that they are listening less to music on the radio now.
3) Deveria o iPod ter rádio? «One thing I don’t like about my Ipod and/or MP3 player is that it doesn’t provide me with local news and information: DISAGREE 46.9% 45.8% 46.6%, AGREE 51.8% 53.5% 52.6% TOTAL 15-29 15-34»
4) O maior problema do iPod é não musica nova? «One thing I don’t like about my Ipod and/or MP3 player is that it doesn’t expose me to new music: DISAGREE 55.0% 53.5% 54.9% AGREE 44.2% 46.3% 44.7% TOTAL 15-29 15-34»
Tudo e o resto aqui: http://www.nab.org/AM/europe/2006/presentations/GettingYouthInt.pdf
«La red ofrece cabida a usuarios con intereses más diferenciados que la audiencia radiofónica y así, por ejemplo, mientras las emisoras españolas convencionales hace mucho tiempo que han perdido la batalla en la incorporación como oyentes de los niños y los más jóvenes, Internet logra convertirlos en usuarios con una mayor facilidad. Algunos sectores de población, como los más jóvenes, alejados de la radio tradicional se incorporan ahora a la oferta de la red, lo cual provoca esta multiplicación de direcciones sobre las temáticas más variadas; en definitiva, genera una necesidad de ofertar nuevos contenidos.»
fonte: fonte: RODERO ANTÓN, Ema La radio en Internet», Tercero Congreso de Periodismo Digital, 2002, pag 2
 Según los datos de audiencia de Internet ofrecidos por el EGM en la última oleada (octubre-noviembre de 2001), el 21 por ciento de la población española es usuario de Internet mientras que el 45 por ciento oye la radio. El perfil de usuarios de Internet por edades es el siguiente: entre 14 y 19 años: 17%, entre 20 y 24 años: 21%, entre 25 y 34 años: 32%, entre 35 y 44 años: 17% y entre 45 a 54 años: 9,8%. El perfil de los oyentes de radio según la misma fuente es este otro: entre 14 y 19 años: 8%, entre 20 y 24 años: 10%, de 25 a 34: 21 %, de 35 a 44 años: 18%, entre 45 y 54 años: 14%, de 55 a 64 años: 12% y 65 años o más: 15%. Estos datos demuestran que el 70% de los usuarios de Internet son jóvenes (de entre 14 y 34 años) frente al 39 % de la audiencia de radio para el mismo tramo de edad.
«Anna maintained that young people "are listening to more radio than ever." And it took me a while to realize that by "radio" she meant all forms of radio - satellite, terrestrial, podcasting, and especially Internet. They are, in other words, interchangeable [intermutável, substituível, que alterna] to that audience. Thus they should be interchangeable to you, your station, and your strategic plan»
fonte: «A Glimpse into Radio's Future, courtesy of the Zandl Group», Hear2.0, Mark Ramsey, 30/10/07
«No modelo da difusão das inovações de Everett Rogers23, os inovadores e os «early adopters» representam a vanguarda no que respeita à adopção de novas ideias, tecnologias, produtos ou serviços»
«O «nome guarda-chuva» que parece actualmente acolher mais seguidores é o de «Web 2.0». O facto de este ter sido proposto pelo presidente de uma empresa de manuais de programação, Tim O’Reilly (cf. O’Reilly, 2005), não constitui um bom «cartão-de-visita», pelo menos num contexto de rigores académicos do qual se deve afastar tudo o que aparente ser um slogan saído duma campanha de marketing. É, além disso, uma expressão tão vaga que dela não se infere qualquer diferença a não ser a abstracção do número: de 1.0 para 2.0 -- algo que não ocorre com outras expressões que com ela competem, como a de «web semântica» ou «web social». Fortes reservas, sem dúvida, mas que preferimos suspender invocando um argumento com tanto de nominalista como de pragmático -- mais vale um nome que diz pouco mas que sugere muito do que um outro que responde em vez de estimular o questionamento. «Web 2.0» tem como vantagem o facto de apontar para uma mudança em curso, uma mudança comparável à que começou há cerca de década e meia, apesar de nada nos dizer acerca dessa eventual mudança, obrigando-nos por isso a identificá-la… ou, no pior dos cenários, a negar a sua existência»
Uma utilização muito mais à letra: «Natalie Coughlin, Olympic champion and world record holder over 100m backstroke and in line for several prizes at Beijing 2008, is the Apple of the eye of the iPod Generation.»
Conclusões do Youth Radio Study, da Paragon Media Strategies («Paragon Media Strategies surveyed 474 Millennials age 14-24 via internet survey. Many of the findings can be used for benchmarks as we chart how the young’s (14-24 year olds) new media usage impacts radio listening. One caveat: because the survey was conducted on line, we’re more likely to be dealing with early adopters to New Media». «The teens and young adults in the Youth Radio Study represent the next generation of 25-54 listeners. There are some red flags in this study about respondent’s radio use and also some constructive information about how radio can generate more radio listening from them»):
* 73% of respondents say a majority of their music listening time is spent listening to music on sources other than radio (CDs, MP3s, iPods, streaming, satellite radio, etc).
«Young people's opinion of radio -- top-of-mind for Radio Show attendees -- was particularly illuminating. There's a "deep dive" session scheduled for Thursday, but the initial presentation showed that radio is not prevalent in young people's homes. Rather, in-car is the primary location for radio listening, with iPods beginning to encroach. It was clear that some young people still use and love radio, but there are many lessons for radio broadcasters to learn from how 18-28-year-olds use media on the whole»
fonte: «Report Reveals Young Americans' Media Habits», Radio Ink, 27/9/07
«Many informants expressed the idea that their community and/or society was defined through technology - almost a tecnological determinism. Whereas radio had defined their grandparents' generation and televison their parents' generation, they were defined by the internet» (McMillan e Morrison, 2006: 85)
«The quarterly status report for how well the industry is keeping listeners in an increasingly fragmented media world shows radio held steady in the Spring with a 14 rating. While that’s the lowest-ever, it’s steady with Winter’s 12+ number.»
«(...) Radio, on the other hand, has little dedicated specifically to children's programming. That changes when Edmonton-based KidRadio.ca goes live at 6 a.m. Monday. Like any regular radio station, KidRadio features 24/7 programming that includes music, a morning show, commercials, and eventually, specialty and educational programming. What sets KidRadio apart is that it caters to children 12 and under - and don't bother trying to find it on your radio dial. (...) Preston said launching the station online, as opposed to traditional radio airwaves, was simply logical. "To start a terrestrial radio station you need a substantial amount of money, and for the Internet you don't, and there are also the concerns of CRTC regulations," he said. While Canadian radio broadcasters must meet federally mandated Canadian content programming requirements to keep their licences, web-based broadcasters are not limited by such rules. Unlike satellite radio, which boasts a wide variety of youth channels, KidRadio is aimed at an Edmonton audience. Morning show Breakfast Toonz, hosted by local teens DJ and Kaity, includes weather and traffic updates (for the parents). Preston said KidRadio has also been working with the Edmonton Public School Board to provide educational content, which will eventually be slotted into programming. There are also plans to add kid-targeted cooking, health and fitness shows.» (fonte: «Edmonton-based web radio for kids launches»Jennifer Fong, Edmonton Journal, September 16 2007
«Nearly 75% of all adults log onto the Internet and nearly 1 in 5 (18%) of online users visit a radio website over the period of a month. A profile of radio website visitors shows that well educated, upper income, white collar workers in addition to younger people tend to be more likely to visit radio websites. These findings come from a recently released telephone study of 118,211 randomly selected adults conducted by The Media Audit between January 2006 and April 2007 in 88 markets across the nation.
fonte: «One in 5 Internet users visit a radio website» RBR, Carnegie, Setembro 07
Das poucas certezas que este relatório tem: «Analogue audiences will continue to decline especially among younger listeners as radio broadcasters adjust by offering a wider variety of content, higher availability on multiple platforms and through multiple standards. Radio listeners will become more demanding in terms of the variety of content they seek and ways of accessing it»
fonte: Public Radio in Europe, Conclusions and Outlook, EBU/UER, Junho 2007
«"Because of satellite radio, more affluent people are going to use that service, so we have a smaller piece of the pie to slice up with the people remaining, who are not so affluent," said Bob Pettit, general manager of WCBM, the Baltimore talk-radio station at 680 AM. "The younger people are going to the new technologies. Radio used to be a very effective way to reach people aged 18 to 34. Now, not so much." As a result, Pettit said, national advertisers are not turning to the old medium the way they once did, leaving the field to cheaper, and often local, ad buyers. In turn, the stations are obliged to charge less money because their demographic is poorer, he said, leaving the stations with less revenue.»
fonte: MADIGAN, Nick, «Radio may survive this, too», Baltimore Sun, August 26, 2007
«The reality is they, the iPod Generation, are the mainstream media users of the future and their concepts of media, and radio in particular, is determined by their ability to control it, to have it when and where they want, in a mobile and flexible form» (Shaw, 2005: 18)
Listening figures for both have increased exponentially in the last year, with 6.09 million people in the UK listening to shows available solely on digital radio compared to 905,000 four years ago. Meanwhile, 4.4 million people over the age of 15 claiming they have listened to radio on their phone, a 27 per cent rise in the last year, with the largest group of mobile-phone radio listeners aged between 15 and 24. This latter statistic is something of a surprise, as the reception quality of analogue radio on mobile handsets is notoriously patchy, but it seems likely that youngsters are listening to radio on their phones for relatively short periods of time, perhaps while waiting for a bus, or to check on sports results at weekends. (...)»
fonte: «How digital radio came of age», Telegraph, Claudine Beaumont, 25/08/07
«Given that the mobile phone already allows for diverse means of communications; voice, text, video etc, it’s not too difficult to see how a multimedia, or cross-media, handset which expands the general ability to create and share content can become omni-present within ten years. Multimedia as a concept has remained poorly defined but if we talk about cross-media, the meeting of two distinct media – like radio and television, or voice telephony and text emails, it becomes easier. The key for radio is access and mobility. In Ofcom’s research 79% of people stressed being able to access radio on the move, when and where they wanted. And interestingly despite all the recent hype about mobile TV – recent UK audience research shows mobile TV is not popular – largely because it does not allow them to do other things. They want TV on computers and the ability to choose what to watch, when it suits, but for the future enhanced audio based content – like Nokia’s Visual Radio – may fit commuters’ needs. Businessweek estimates mobile phone radio could be worth million in 2005 and that radio could be the trigger for mobile content sales.» (Shaw, 2005: 9)
 Entertainment Media Research (EMR), November 2005, shows 70% of those surveyed did not want mobile TV on their phones – half said they now did others things while watching TV – like surfing the net and checking e-mail. Reported in The Guardian, financial pages, 7/11/05.
 Businessweek online, ‘Dial R for Radio on your Cell’, Olga Kharif 22/3/05/
«(...) "Nearly two-thirds of the young people surveyed said they think that the Internet, instant messaging, cell phones and other technologies make people happier, and 61% said those things make them feel closer to their family," said eMarketer senior analyst Debra Aho Williamson. "You simply cannot separate young people from technology; it is part of who they are."
Respondents generally said living without technology would be stressful. Nearly half of young people never turn off their mobile phones, even when they're trying to relax or "chill out."
Harris Interactive asked kids and teens in October 2006 what things made them happy. Having a PC made more than half of both groups happy. Mobile phones were more important to teens than to children.
fonte: «Internet Keeps Young People Upbeat», eMarketeer, AUGUST 27, 2007
«A única rádio que [Ben, «um adolescente de 16 anos que cresceu com a Internet» (pág.3)] ouve é a NPR, quando os pais a sintonizam nas viagens de automóvel» (Anderson, 2007: 4)
Jovens dos 18-24 estão a ver mais televisão do que há um ano, de acordo com um estudo agora revelado. Parece contraditório com a tendência de uso da Internet. Mas como explica um responsável pela empresa que fez o estudo «the reason our two trend analysts give is because of the programming itself. It’s not even a question of them giving up video games or talking on their phones. It speaks to more of the programming resonating with the audiences».
Além do mais, ver televisão é um conceito que tem de ser posto em causa. Uma coisa é ver televisão ao vivo, outra coisa é ver conteudos da televisão na Internet: «Watching TV live is considerably more of a social event for them than it is for you and me. It would be like every Thursday we’ll watch “Grey’s” at so-and-so’s place at 9. Yet they have no problem streaming shows. They all have broadband connections. And they’re also very comfortable with it. They also have more of a nontraditional schedule, so if they won’t be home or near a TV at certain times, they'll go online to watch a certain show.»
fonte: «Fact: College kids now watch more TV», Media Life Magazine, Jul 26, 2007
De um (surpreendente? inesperado? suspeito?) estudo da Bridge ratings («The new study of 3314 kids between the ages of 8 and 12 [TWEENS]conducted during February/March and June/July 2007 indicates that though exposed to many of the new technologies their older counterparts have been, AM/FM radio still provides a high level of satisfaction.»)
- The truth of this study is that while many of today's 15-19 year olds are spending more time with their digital music players, cell phones and the Internet for the same experience their predecessors got from AM/FM radio, Tweens - those between 8 and 12, are still experiencing radio and loving it.
-The data suggests that radio still has a chance with the teens and young adults of five to ten years from now. (...) For the future of the radio business, radio still has potential among 8-17 year olds. Teens may be a more difficult transition since the radio industry has provided little in the way of content over the last 10 years to nurture teen listening, but this study proves that it isn't too late for Tweens to be nutured by radio.
Talvez o que mais surpreenda seja este quadro: «Tweens use of media hinges largely on access of that media during a typical day. As one might suspect, TV has the largest reach into this demographic - as does radio. 21% of the Tween panel has access to a cell phone daily with only slightly more gaining access to a device that will allow them to Instant Message or Text.
«(...) Canadians spent an average of 18.6 hours a week listening to the radio in 2006, a drop of half an hour from 2005, according to annual statistics reported by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. (...) Average weekly listening time - which includes mornings, at work and while driving, the three points of the day when most people tune in - has fallen substantially from eight years ago, when Canadians averaged 20.5 hours of radio a week, the regulator said. "Since 1999, the overall per capita weekly radio listening levels decreased by almost two hours," the regulator said. "The most notable decreases have been in the teen demographics and for adults aged from 18 to 34, where weekly listening levels have decreased three to four hours."
fonte: «Time with radio on the decline», Report on Business.com GRANT ROBERTSON, August 1, 2007
« (...)But it also seems that the idea of buying a radio is "anathema" to the kids. For them, radio is something that comes free with another device. Winter revealed some alarming research about the "iPod generation", many of whom have no interest in local communities and are distrustful of mainstream media. Some 27% of them think radio is outdated. But despite this level of disengagement, 30% said they would spend more time with radio in future. So how to reach out to them? Parfitt said teens want to be taken seriously and not stereotyped, want aspirational role models from the media, as well as a spirit of "mucking about". And radio should be aware of its strengths. While MP3s allow listeners the music they have already chosen - music recovery - radio is better for music discovery. And in the talk field, radio offers company and connection, rather than the self-immersion of the iPod world. Young listeners still appreciate radio's liveness, spontaneity and unpredictability. Nevertheless you can smell the unease in the auditorium: the world is changing fast and the teens of today are the first to grow up with this dizzying and rapidly evolving array of technologies, and no one knows for sure what will turn out to be merely a fad and what will bring fundamental change to consumer habits.
fonte: «Radio Festival - day two», Guardian Unlimited,
« On an average day, nearly everyone in the US ages 15 and older engages in some sort of leisure activity, like watching TV, using a PC, socializing or exercising, according to the US Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics' "American Time Use Survey." Watching TV accounted for about half of leisure time, on average, for both men and women. Socializing accounted for about three-quarters of an hour per day for both sexes. Time spent reading for personal interest and playing games or using a computer for leisure varied greatly by age. Those ages 75 and older averaged 1.4 hours of reading per weekend day and 0.2 hours (12 minutes) playing games or using a computer for leisure. Individuals ages 15 to 19 read for an average of 0.1 hours (seven minutes) per weekend day and spent one hour playing games or using a computer for leisure.
fonte: «TV Consumes Half of All Leisure Time», eMarketer, JULY 9, 2007
«existia uma divisão por idades: apenas 29,6% das pessoas maiores de 50 anos tinham acesso à Rede, contrastando com os 55,4% dos indivíduos com idades compreendidas entre os 25 e os 49 anos de idade, 56,8% da faixa etária de 18 a 24 e 53,4% dos jovens de 9 a 17 anos. No conjunto, no acesso à Internet, a população adolescente era o dobro do grupo de maiores de 50» (castells, 2004: 289)
«Nos Estados Unidos, os espectadores de televisão por cabo igualaram os dos canais abertos, com 50% de audiência no ano 2000, e está previsto que os superem nos próximos anos. Além disso, os jovens norte-americanos vêm menos televisão agora do que antes: entre 1985 e 2000, os menores de dezoito anos reduziram em 20% o número de horas em frente ao televisor. Esta mudança atribuiu-se em parte ao facto de os jovens passarem cada vez mais tempo a navegar na Internet (The Economist, 2001: 60)» (Castells, 2004: 226)
«A Internet parece ter um efeito positivo na interacção social e tende a aumentar o grau de exposição a outras fontes de informação. Di Maggio e outros (2001) informam acerca dos resultados de diversos inquéritos de participação pública que indicam que os utilizadores da Internet (uma vez controladas outras variáveis) lêem mais livros, assistem a mais acontecimentos artísticos, vão mais ao cinema, assistem a mais espectáculos desportivos e fazem mais desporto que os não utilizadores.» (Castells, 2004: 151)
«(...) o conjunto de dados disponíves não sustenta a tese de que a utilização da Internet conduz a uma menor interacção e a um maior isolamento social. Mas existem alguns indícios de que, em determinadas circunstâncias, o seu uso pode agir como substituto de outras actividades sociais. (...) é difícil chegar a uma conclusão definitiva sobre os efeitos que a rede pode ter sobre o grau de sociabilidade» (Castells, 2004: 154)
«Multitasking is driving up the total amount of time that US teens spend with media, according to a Bridge Ratings study conducted in March to May 2007.
Bridge attributes this change to Generation Y's skill at consuming two or more of types of media simultaneously.
Among teen Internet users, 7.3 million of the total 9.4 million online in 2006 watched TV while online, and 6.9 million listened to the radio, according to eMarketer calculations based on data from a BIGresearch survey.
Although multitasking extends across all age groups, teens are generally more likely to multitask media than adults.
eMarketer Senior Analyst Debra Aho Williamson says more research is needed to discover exactly how multitasking affects consumers. "The media and advertising industries must move beyond simply acknowledging that multitasking takes place," Ms. Williamson says, "and support research initiatives that can establish which media are most likely to be 'foreground,' or primary, media, and which are more likely to be in the background. In addition, more research must be done to show marketers whether advertising that only receives partial attention is still effective."»
fonte: Generation Y Multitaskers Boost Media Time», eMarketeer, JUNE 21, 2007
«OTTAWA -- A new study has found that Canadians -- especially teens and young adults -- devoted less time than ever listening to their radios for entertainment in 2006. Statistics Canada reports young people aged 12-24 appear to be switching to digital music players and online music services. On average, Canadians tuned in to their radios for 18.6 hours during "measurement week" in the fall of 2006, down from 19.1 hours a week in 2005 and about two hours less than in the fall of 1999, when radio listening peaked. Among young adult men, listening fell to 13.7 hours from 15.1. Among their female counterparts, it slipped to 14.6 hours from 15.4. Senior women continued to be the most ardent radio listeners, tuning in for 22.7 hours per week -- virtually unchanged from 2005 -- while listening by senior men edged down to 19.5 hours a week from 20.3»
fonte: «Radio listening dropping off», London Free Press, June 27, 2007, By CP
«If you had a choice - if you had to live with just one device or technology - what would it be? Would you choose the Internet? Or TV? Or your iPod? Or FM Radio? That was the hypothetical question we posed to 25,000+ Rockers in this year's Technology Poll, and the winner may surprise you. Television came out on top - despite all the hype about new technology and how everything's changing. It's a real tribute to how the TV networks (not to mention HBO, Showtime, etc.) have produced compelling, habit-forming programming.
Radio is still in the hunt, of course, powered mostly by its morning and personality-driven shows. But we have a long way to go in the content department if we're going to remain vital and competitive with new - and old - media.»
fonte: Jacobs Media, The One Thing, 12/06/07
Mas entre os 18/34 a questão é bem diferente: 28% para a Internet, 19% para a televisão
«If analysts are taken aback by the rapid growth of Internet usage among, adults, that incidence pales in comparison to the proportion of teenagers who use the Net- currently some 91 percent! Teenagers also go online more frequently than do adults, and tend to stay online for longer periods of time. If the Net is just becoming a comfortable addendum to the adult media world, it has already become an indispensable focal point of the teenagers' world of communications. It is relied Upon for self-expression, information and entertainment» (Barna, 2001: 32)
«According to a recent comScore study, podcast listening (as measured by who downloads what from iTunes) is dominated by Men. And 18-24's are twice as likely to download a podcast as anyone else.
Here are some summary stats:
fonte: Mark Ramsey, «Who listens to Podcasts?», Hear2.0
«Many people think the new media and television are analogous because they both involve screens. For example. the term screenagers has been used to describe today's youth. TV viewers and Net surfers alike have been called couch potatoes. (...) Those who say that the Net is all about a bigger crop of couch potatoes not only have a cynical view of humanity, but they ignore the budding experience with interactive technologies. Unfortunately for these commentators and fortunately for kids, the similarities between the two technologies end with the screen. In fact, the shift is more like from couch potato to Nintendo jockey.
Tv is controlled by adults. Kids are passive observers. In contrast, children control much or their world on the Net. It is something they do themselves; they are users, and they are active. They do not just observe, they participate. They inquire, discuss, argue, play, shop, critique, investigate, ridicule, fantasize, seek, and inform. This makes the Internet fundamentally different from previous communications innovations, such as the development of the printing press or the introduction of radio and television broadcasting. These latter technologies are unidirectional and controlled by adults. They are very hierarchical. inflexible, and centralized. Not surprisingly, they reflect the values of their adult owners. By contrast, the new nedia is interactive. malleable. and distributed in control.(...) This distinction is at the heart of the new generation. For the first time ever, children are taking control of critical elements of a communications revolution» (25-26)
«(...) To youth-market researcher Max Valiquette, this combination of smallness and technological muscle is part of an accelerating cultural shift away from home-based entertainment toward a brave new world of portability, allowing consumers vastly greater control over what they listen to and view.
"One, you don't have to wait for what you want to hear," says Valiquette, 30, an iPod user and president of Youthography, a research firm based in Toronto. "Two, it's not the volume of songs but the navigation -- by mood, genre, popularity, artist, et cetera -- that's the real genius here."
Valiquette also notes that the ability to control one's listening habits has steadily expanded since the Sony Walkman debuted in 1979, making headphones a commonplace accessory. From mix tapes to custom-made CDs, the "know-me-by-my-music" mentality of older music lovers is being taken to new heights by the iPod generation, he says.
"You don't sit around a coffee shop anymore saying, `If you dig that tune, you'll dig this, too,' " Valiquette says. "You pull out your iPod instead and say, `Hey, listen to this.' "»
fonte«All shook up», Boston Globe, Joseph P. Kahn, April 5, 2004
«City analysts have warned that the UK's commercial radio stations are losing younger listeners to social networking websites. Sites such as MySpace and Facebook as well a general increase in web usage mean younger listeners are spending time elsewhere. According to Credit Suisse analyst Simon Baker: "The proliferation of internet-based entertainment has precipitated one of the most significant changes, if not the most significant change, in the way the younger demographic consume media. It should be of increasing concern to radio groups." Rajar's most recent figures show that year-on-year commercial radio listening hours for the 15-to-24 age group are down by 3% despite the number of listeners increasing by 6%. The RadioCentre head of research Alison Winter said: "There is an increase in the number of young people listening to radio, but they are not tuning in for as long. I don't think this is because of increased web usage, our previous research has shown web browsing and listening to the radio are frequently complementary activities."
«Britain's iPod generation is becoming hooked on classical music with new figures revealing a huge surge in youngsters listening to radio station Classic FM. Driven by the success of film scores for blockbuster movies like Lord of the Rings and Harry Potter and determined efforts to sex-up the classical music industry, a section of Britain's youth appears to be tuning in to Mozart. The surprising figures revealed in the latest set of radio results show half a million under 15s are now tuning in to Classic FM each week, overturning the conceived wisdom that classical music is something people predominantly turn to in older age. Classic FM, which recently won the top award at Britain's radio oscars the Sony Radio Academy Awards last week, saw a massive 52 per cent increase in the number of under 15 listeners on the previous quarter. (...) Classic FM claims that a large number of children are also using the station as an accompaniment to their revision for school exams and homework as it helps them 'relax' and 'concentrate'. Figures are also boosted by youngsters learning musical instruments at school and those sitting music exams. The station's overall figures for the first quarter of 2007 of over six million listeners a week released yesterday by industry body Rajar, does not include under-15's. If they are included the station boasts 6.5 million listeners a week. The station has also been targeting younger listeners with two programme strands completely dedicated to children with Simon Bates during the morning school run at 8.10am and a kids request show at 3.45pm.»
fonte: «Ipod generation boosts classical music radio station by 500,000 listeners», Daily Mail, 10th May 2007
«The "digital divide". What exactly is it? The answer, it seems, is not the gap between rich and poor, but the difference in the way young people and adults view the internet.At last month's UK Kids Online seminar, the grown-ups were wheeled out. Beverley Hughes, the minister for children, young people and families, talked about how kids use computers to "engage in social networking and to create unbelievably comprehensive personal music collections, [they are] also a valuable tool for their studies". She also, like most adults, fretted more about the risks than the opportunities.»
«One in three people now listen to radio via the internet, according to new research from Sony. Not only are millions listening to radio in new ways, but new technology is changing what people listen to. Some 15 per cent of people now use the internet to listen to shows and stations outside their terrestrial broadcast areas. Another 18 per cent of people have used the internet to listen to a radio show after it was broadcast by downloading from a radio station website. Internet listening is most popular in the 35-44 age group (41 per cent of whom listen this way), and in the 24-34 age group (40 per cent). The ICM poll also found that internet listening is more popular among men (36 per cent of whom listen via internet) than women (25 per cent). (...) 21 per cent listen via an MP3 or other digital music player, despite many consumers' devices not having an integrated radio tuner; - 12 per cent listen via a mobile phone with built-in tuner, as more and more have this facility; - 82 per cent listen via a conventional analogue radio set.
Studies of young people found they now listen to radio via television sets, and via DAB digital radio sets. The research also found that a third of young people now listen to radio via mobile phones. Additional key findings include:
- 33 per cent of young people 18-24 listen to radio via their mobile phone - far more than other age groups. Just 12 per cent of those aged 25-34 listen via mobile, and 15 per cent of those 35 to 44
- Young people are more likely than any other age group to listen to radio via television sets (57 per cent), and DAB digital radio sets (52 per cent).
- Listening via MP3 and other music players is also less popular among those 18 to 24 (26 per cent) than those 25 to 34 (27 per cent).
Some 31 per cent of 18 to 24-year-olds said that they would pay more if the service were available, compared with a figure of 16 per cent for the population as a whole.
fonte: «One in three listen to radio via Internet». UTalk.Marketing.com, 01/05/07
São essas as conclusões do ultimo trimestre da Bridge Ratings:
«In 2006 Bridge Ratings' consumer analysis began to reflect a slow reversal of attrition by both groups. 12-21 year olds were less likely in these 2006 studies to abandon terrestrial radio as they were in the 2004 studies. This behavioral change hinged on two factors: 1) renewed interest in terrestrial radio and/or its Internet simulcast and 2) "iPod fatigue" among a significant number of 12-21 year olds who in 2004 consumed much less terrestrial radio because nearly 80% of their time-spent-listening to traditional AM/FM radio stations had transferred to MP3 player use. By 2006 our panel had greatly reduced their weekly use of their MP3 players returning to terrestrial radio listening patterns similar to those this group used in 2004.»
(Sample size: 5102 persons 12+ Survey dates: 02/15/2007 - 04/10/2007; Markets included: Los Angeles, Portland OR, Dallas, Phoenix, New York, Boston, Washington DC, Miami-Ft. Lauderdale, Denver; Methodology: Random digit phone dialing, mall intercepts; Population estimates courtesy of the U.S. Census Bureau)
fonte : «Digital Media Growth Projections - Updated 04/25/2007», Bridge Ratings
According to the latest study by Arbitron and Edison Media Research, The Infinite Dial 2007: Radio’s Digital Platforms:
«Podcasting attracts a youthful audience. One out of six who have ever listened to an audio podcast are 12-17 years old, and more than half ( 52 percent) are under the age of 35». (pág 10)
«More than half of teenagers own an iPod or other portable MP3 player. Fifty-four percent of respondents age 12-17, and nearly four in ten adults age 18-34 currently own an iPod or other portable MP3 player» (pág 14)
«Contrary to commonly held beliefs, people who listen to digital radio platforms do not spend less time listening to AM/FM radio. Some industry insiders assume that people who use new digital platforms listen less to AM/FM radio. Once again, we find that people who use digital audio platforms do NOT listen less to AM/FM radio. Among respondents in our study, the average time spent listening per day to AM/FM radio was 2 hours, 37 minutes compared with 2 hours, 45 minutes a day among those who use radio's new digital platforms (listened to online radio in the last month, or subscribe to satellite radio, or have ever listened to an audio podcast). Despite the growth reported in alternatives, such as the iPod, online radio and satellite radio, the time spent listening to AM/FM radio by users of digital radio platforms has not changed versus a year ago.» (pag 13). «Radio sees the most impact on listening from iPod/digital audio player owners age 11-24. Among 12-17s and 18-24s, 18 percent in each age group say they are spending less time with over-the-air radio due to time spent with an iPodlportable MP3 player» (pág 16)
«O poder que tem o rádio de envolver as pessoas em profundidade se manifesta no uso que os adolescentes fazem do aparelho de rádio, durante seus trabalhos de casa (...)» (Meditsch, 2005: 144)
«Hoje, o rádio propicia intimidade ao jovem (...)» (idem, 148)
According to the latest study by Arbitron and Edison Media Research, The Infinite Dial 2007: Radio’s Digital Platforms:
«* iPod/Portable MP3 player ownership continues to rise. Thirty percent of Americans age 12 and older own an iPod or other brand of portable MP3 player; this figure has risen from 22 percent in 2006 and 14 percent in 2005. More than half (54 percent) of those age 12-17 own a digital audio player.
«(...) While young people, the 13-to-24 set, do in fact spend more time than older people on the internet and with even newer media such as text messaging, it's not at the expense of traditional media. Rather it comes on top of it, according to a new study by Deloitte & Touche, the management consulting firm. “The evidence tells us that TV usage is not down, it’s slightly up, and radio usage is about flat to slightly down,” says Anthony Kern, deputy managing principal of the technology, media and telecommunications practice at Deloitte. The study found that 48 percent of 13-24s visit a TV web site at least once a week. The one area of traditional media that is in fact suffering is newspapers, where readership among the young is in fact down. The Deloitte study was conducted online by Harrison Group, a research company, with more than 2,200 people. The findings are in line with those from other research in media usage.
A recent Magna Global analysis of Nielsen Media Research data found that TV viewing among kids 2-11 is flat to the same time last year for the broadcast season through mid-February, while viewing is down 1 percent among teens and 1 percent in the 12-34 demographic. By comparison, the percentage of adults 18-49 watching any form of TV on an average night is down 4 percent. Moreover, radio listening is down slightly among young people but not much more than it is for other age groups. The average quarter-hour rating among teenagers last fall was an 8.7 compared to a 9.2 rating one year earlier, according to Arbitron. Among adults 18-24 the rating dipped to a 13 from a 13.6 rating. The average rating among adults during that time frame fell to a 14.7 from a 14.9 rating.
Among its others findings, Deloitte found that 71 percent of people 13-24--folks it calls Millennials-- still enjoy reading magazines, even though they know they can find the same information online. Of this group, 58 percent say they use magazines to find out what’s cool. “They prefer the [print] magazines because they are highly targeted and they are getting specific information they want, whether it’s fashion, star news or whatever it happens to be,” says Kern. “There is also a group that says ads in magazines are generally more effective than ads on the internet.” That's consistent with another Deloitte finding, that ads in traditional media are effective among all age groups, from 13-year-olds to folks of 75. Says Kern: “A lot of people thought consumers weren't paying attention to traditional media but they are.” One thing the Deloitte study did discern about young people that sets them apart from their elders is their power to influence others by word of mouth in the choice of media outlets and presumably advertised products. This 13-24 demographic tells 18 people on average if they find a web site or television show they enjoy, compared to only 10 people among all survey respondents. “We call that amplification,” says Kern. “Word of mouth and viral marketing are very important for this [13-24] age group. They are very fast at communicating. And one of the things they talk about most is TV shows.”»
fonte: «For young folks, old media's still cool», Apr 17, 2007
«Formats allow us to seek out a monotone mood with only the tiniest surprises. (...) those, especially young people, who are looking for community-building communication technologies that allow for independent, unconventional expression, are deserting radio for the Internet. . . . But I, and millions like me, don't have a radio station to listen to anymore. (DOUGLAS, 1999: 347, 356)
«(...) audiência mais ampla, que passa tanto tempo na Internet e jogando videogames quanto dedica à televisão, e não quer mais se incomodar com quando e onde um programa será exibido.»
fonte: «06/03/2007, MTV Networks reforça ação na Web para reconquistar espectadores»
- Radio is a powerful vehicle for reaching kids and tweens. Radio reaches 90 percent of children each week, and they spend eight to nine hours per week with radio.
- Kids and tweens find radio commercials informative and entertaining. Spot load or annoying commercials aren’t an issue with this group.
- Kids and tweens respond to commercials. They are interested in the products and services being advertisedand frequently request that Mom or Dad make purchases on their behalf.
- Kids and tweens are very involved with radio. They listen with their friends, attend events, play contests and seek out music on the Internet.
- Radio listening fits in with children’s lifestyles. They get ready for school with the radio and go right back to radio when the school day is over. Nights and weekends also deliver strong numbers for children.
- As Children Grow, So Does Their Time Spent with Radio
(Kids 6/8; tweens: 9/11;
(«How Kids and tweens use and respond to radio»; Arbitron, Inverno 2000; Survey Dates: 2/3/00 - 3/29/00; In-Tab: New York 476, Los Angeles 537, Minneapolis-St. Paul 328. (...) During the placement call there was an initial screening question as to whether any children 6-11 lived in the household. If yes, the interviewers would proceed with a standard placement interview; if no, a thank-you and good-bye; Methodology for Callback Study: In-Tab: 358, Survey Dates: 6/23/00 - 7/12/00 Survey Methodology: The sample for the Children’s Measurement; Callback Study was drawn from the Winter 2000 Arbitron Kids’ and Tweens’ Listening Study. All in-tab households from New York, Los Angeles and Minneapolis were selected for recall)
«44% of the consumers under 24 years of age that we interviewed consider the Internet to be the primary way to listen to music. That number falls to 39% of those over 24 and only 18% of those over 35. The greatest potential for growth in this area comes from this over 35 group where 22% believe that the Internet will become their primary way to listen to music in the future.
Não há uma uniformização das classificações etárias.
Uma é esta: Kids - 8-12 anos; tweens: 9-14; teen(ager)s: 12-17
Outra (usada no State of the News Media 2007): teenagers: 12-17; young adults: 18-34
Outra (arbitron): kids (6-8) e tweens (9-11).
«For now, the new digital forms of audio are not only expanding the potential for listening beyond that of traditional radio, they are also attracting a different audience. Some of these differences are to be expected, but others are more surprising and subtle. To begin with, contrary to popular conception, teenagers are not necessarily the most avid consumers of new technology, at least not with new audio devices. Young adults, for instance, those between age 18 and 34, are the most likely to listen to Internet radio. Nearly 1 in 5 does so at least once a week, compared with closer to 1 in 10 of 12-to-17-year-olds.35 Teenagers, though, are more likely to listen to podcasts — 21% of people under 18 report doing so — but listening to podcasts is equally as popular with 35-to-44-year-olds, followed closely by people 25 to 34, at 20%, and 45 to 54, at 17%.36 The listening device that reigns supreme with youth is the MP3 player. A majority of U.S. teenagers (51%) now report that they own an iPod or some other brand of portable digital music player, according to Arbitron.37
Of the new audio formats, satellite radio attracts the “oldest” crowd, though it isn’t really old at all: those between 35 and 44 are most likely to listen to satellite radio. Of those surveyed in that age group, 24% said they listened to satellite radio, followed by 20% in the 25-to-34 age range and only 6% of those 18 to 24.38
«Radio, in other words, is being used by teenagers as an escape route from family life and into what is described as the 'privatism' being sought for at a particular moment in their psychological and social development. This chimes with the observation by Barnett and Morrison that for all of us: «Television has become the 'social' medium, allowing the family to share a leisure activity in its own living room; radio, on the other hand, has become 'asocial' - a solo medium which is isolationist rather than communal. (1989: I). There are two important caveats to this casting of radio listening as somehow more 'private' or 'asocial' than watching television: first, it underplays the changing relationship between the way we use various media in the home, and secondly, it underplays the sociable dimensions of radio listening itself... First, then, the question of competing media in the home. In the years since Barnett and Morrison made their observation the number of television sets per household has risen considerably throughout the western world. Specifically, many teenagers are now just as likely to have a TV set in their bedrooms as a radio. (...) At the same time teenagers are no longer quite so dependent as they once were on the transistor radio as their means of withdrawal from the family: the better off among them are now likely to have their own CD players, computer games, even Internet access. These offer entry to a whole range of 'asocial' activities other than radio, and their presence in households appears to be making teenagers more discriminating - sceptical even - about the radio output on offer (Carroll et al. 1993)» (Hendy, 200: 127-1289)
«The other big audience challenge is youth. Most of my generation grew up with radio. Memories of that first car, that first cigarette, that first pint of heavy, are for many of us inextricably bound up with particular pieces of music, particular radio programmes or DJs. Today, while television can still capture children up to their early teens and the challenge is simply getting them back in their twenties, for radio, is there a generation growing up who are simply not introduced to the habit and may thus not get the point as they mature. Two thirds of today’s young mobile users have their phones on and within easy reach for between 21 and 24 hours a day. I earnestly hope that radio- possibly using the mobile as delivery medium - can capture at least some of that time.»
fonte: The Radio Festival - Certainty or Security? The Path to Digital, Stephen A Carter, Chief Executive, Ofcom, 4/07/05
«A new research study about emerging video services, conducted by Leichtman Research Group, provides important clues about what 18-34 men really want. While 4% of 18+ adults watch video online daily, it's 18-34 guys who make up a whopping 41% of that viewing. And these same young men account for over two-thirds of adults who view video on sites like YouTube every day. This is another key reason why morning shows aimed at these 18-34 men need to seriously be integrating video into their shows. Whether it's via webcam, YouTube-type collections of videos, or user-generated pieces, we're dealing with a new generation of guys that really enjoys this form of entertainment. Morning shows and other personalities that tap into that desire can really set themselves apart in a big way, growing their male fan base in the process.»
fonte: Jacoblog, Vidiots, 13/03/07
«iPod Generation» aparece (pela primeira vez?) num relatório da Ofcom com o título «The iPod Generation; Devices and Desires of the Next Generation of Radio Listeners», elaborado por The Knowledge Agency e com data de 23 de Julho de 2004. Nesse relatório não é dada qualquer informação sobre a expressão, mas é uma feita uma caracterização desses ouvintes:
- a média dos possuidores de rádios digitais é de 51 anos. «Younger people are listening to the radio noticeably less than their parents» (18-30 anos)
- «Youth” defined as 18-30 year olds;› Old enough to make their own independent choices and have their own listening patterns;› Old enough to be able to afford at least some of the relevant technology; • Moderate, but not bleeding edge technophiles; – Interested in new technology; – Internet and mobile phone users; – All personally own two or more examples of new technology (MP3, digital camera, PC, Interactive TV, digital radio, etc). • All listen to at least 1 hour of radio per day (mix of stations)»
- “I gave up on radio quite a while ago... I’d much rather listen to my own music... because there’s far less chance of hearing music that I’m going to want to listen to on any radio station”. (20-30 year old working man, Cardiff)
«(...) at the Radio Festival 2005.6 A presentation on research carried out for the BBC by Sparkler not only discussed a fall in radio listening amongst 16–29-year-olds in the previous two years but, like OFCOM, gave radio’s lost audience a name: the ‘digi-life generation’: an audience which has grown up knowing digital choice, computers, the internet and mobile telephones (Gallie and Robson, 2005).7 This is an audience which communicates via text messages (SMS) and instant messaging and for whom using technology is easy and second nature. It is clear that for radio as a business to develop it should recognize these fundamental changes in the lifestyles and expectations of the audience. My own conversations with students reflect what the industry is hearing in their research. Young people are disconnected by contemporary broadcast radio and seek out new forms online or choose their own music over radio. Most cite poor commercials, overly tight playlists and stations that do not target them directly as their reasons for not tuning in as often as the previous generation did. It would seem that the notion of audiences choosing the least objectionable – or the least worst – is over, with no radio being preferable to unsuitable radio (MacFarland, 1997: 17).» Berry, 149
Trata-se de um conceito mais cultural do que demográfico, ou seja descreve mais um período cultural e não tanto todas as pessoas que nasceram depois de um determinado período de tempo ou numa geração. De qualquer forma, insere-se numa certa tradição, com origem nos EUA, de catalogação de pessoas com determinadas características. Douglas Coupland escreveu «Generation X» em 1991 para descrever aqueles que tendo nascido depois de 1970 viveram a sua adolescência nos anos 80, com determinadas características agregadoras (ao nível das experiências, da música, etc). Sucedeu-se a Geração Y, para os nascidos a partir da década de 80.
Não fax sentido falar por exemplo em geração Xbox se a XBox não marcou uma geração
«Ratings for rock radio stations have been languishing for years. The share of the 18-to-34 age group that is tuning in to alternative stations has shrunk by more than 20 percent in the last five years, according to Arbitron, while stations playing rap and R&B or Spanish-language formats have enjoyed an expanding audience. As a result, many rock programmers aren't sure what to play. "The format in the last couple of years has gone through an identity crisis," said Kevin Weatherly, program director of KROQ, a closely watched alternative powerhouse in Los Angeles. "You have stations that are too cool, that move too quickly and are only playing the coolest music, which doesn't at the end of the day attract enough of the audience. Or you have the other extreme, dumb rock, red-state rock that the cool kids just flat out aren't into." (...) Some analysts fear that, when radio stations switch from alternative rock to programming aimed at older listeners, they may be making a sacrifice. "Radio has ceded the younger demographic to other media," said Fred Jacobs, president of Jacobs Media, a radio consulting company in Southfield, Mich., specializing in rock. "I just don't know how we're going to get back people who didn't get into the radio habit in their teens," he said, adding, "It really becomes problematic down the road."».
fonte: New York Times, «Fade-Out: New Rock Is Passé on Radio», By JEFF LEEDS, April 28, 2005
«Encouraged by available bandwidth and interactive multimedia possibilities, consumers are now clamoring for new roles. Those Gadgetiers and Kool Kids* that we just mentioned are not only interested in consuming content in new ways – they also want to create, manipulate and mash it. Between July 2005 and July 2006, five of the ten fastest growing Web sites were portals for user-generated content: imageShack.com, Heavy, Flickr, MySpace.com and Wikipedia [“Social Networking Sites Grow 47 Percent, Year Over Year, Reaching 45 Percent of Web Users, According Nielsen//Netratings.” PR Newswire. May 11, 2006]. Consumers are clearly passionate about being editors, producers and directors. The falling prices of sophisticated media editing and recording equipment and software have put the tools of the trade within reach of almost any aspiring talent or wannabee. The result is a blurring and merging of the roles of producer and consumer, or a “prosumer,” as coined by Alvin Toffler [Toffler, Alvin. The Third Wave. Bantam Books. March 1980]».
fonte: «Navigating the media divide», IBM Institute for Business Value, 2007
* Expressão usada inicialmente num estudo da IBM, «Berman, Dr. Saul J., Niall Duffy and Louisa A. Shipnuck. “The end of television as we know it: A future industry perspective.” IBM Institute for Business Value. January 2006» cujas características essenciais são:
«Kool Kids, who also prefer interactive and mobile media experiences and rely heavily on content sharing and social interaction. It is these last two groups of consumers – the Gadgetiers and Kool Kids – that will likely lead the way with multichannel entertainment consumption.» (...) «Kool Kids think and act much differently than the other two segments. To them, devices and services are all about fashion and making a statement. Form matters more than function. However, they’re young – and their wallets are much skinnier than those of Gadgetiers, making price an issue. Their social networks tend to be faddish, rising and falling out of favor quickly». Ou «Kool Kids. Marcus, age 13, and Semana, age 15, are brother and sister. Both were exposed to high bandwidth networks as very young children and they experiment unflinchingly with media and platforms. While they have little disposable income, they follow all the latest gadget crazes. The mobile device is the centerpiece of their lives and they text message while doing one, two or three other tasks. Though their parents refuse to allow it in their presence, Semana and Marcus even do instant messaging on the TV set while watching favorite shows. Marcus uses his tech-savvy to try to bypass network blocks and content encryption in order to rip and share content. Likewise, Semana doesn’t worry about piracy warnings as she trades copies of CDs with her friends. Without thinking about it, both are heavily invested in media experiences and spend much time seeking TV episodes, current films and hard-to-find, cool niche content. Like practically all their friends, these teenagers have posted detailed profiles to several social networking sites, relying on those connections for media recommendations and most other aspects of their lives»
« (...) two trends as particularly disruptive to mainstream media: the rising popularity of user-created content and the move toward open distribution platforms. In fact, these two axes of change clearly delineate the old and new worlds of media. In the traditional world, content produced by professionals and distributed through proprietary platforms still dominates. But in the new world, content is often user-created and accessed through open platforms. These polarized tendencies mark the clear and present conflict between incumbents and new entrants.»
fonte: «Navigating the media divide», IBM Institute for Business Value, 2007
«A new media world has arrived. Pioneered by teens and gadget-savvy professionals, it has quickly spread into virtually every consumer segment, and started to encroach on traditional media. The number of unique visitors to MySpace.com has now surpassed the 50 million mark – something akin to the number of U.S. households that tune into the Super Bowl. Every day, consumers around the world watch about 100 million videos on YouTube – putting that number in context, the top 15 British primetime television shows combined attract about 100 million viewers, as do the top 4 U.S. shows.»
fonte: «Navigating the media divide», IBM Institute for Business Value, 2007
«Headline writers and cultural critics talk of an 'iPod Generation.' This can mean a number of things - sometimes it's just a shorthand way of saying "young people" - but generally it's used to depict a mind-set that demands choice and the means to scroll through ideas and ideologies as easily as a finger circles the wheel on the iconic front panel of an iPod. "It seems to me that a lot of younger listeners think the way the iPod the iPod thinks;' wrote Alex Ross in The New Yorker. "They are no longer so invested in a single way of seeing the world". (Levy, 2006: 4)
Alex Ross: «I have seen the future, and it is called Shuffle—the setting on the iPod that skips randomly from one track to another. (...) It seems to me that a lot of younger listeners think the way the iPod thinks. They are no longer so invested in a single genre, one that promises to mold their being or save the world.» («LISTEN TO THIS»,by ALEX ROSS, New Yorker, Issue of 2004-02-16 and 23)
«Some examples include Radio Arte in Mexico, an all-youth-produced bilingual community radio station that trains and encourages youth to develop self-expression through the broadcast medium (see http://radioarte.org); the South African show Youth Network Television (YNTV), created in 1995 by Ubuntu Television; Blast, a British Broadcasting Corporation initiative encouraging 13- to 19-year olds throughout the United Kingdom to get involved in media production, and Chat the Planet, a television show and Internet community that connects groups of young Americans aged 15 to 25 years with their peers around the world, via satellite, for honest dialogue (see http://www.chattheplanet.com).» http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unyin/documents/wyr05part2.pdf
«Global youth culture is created, adapted, accessed and disseminated largely through worldwide telecommunications networks that are rapidly expanding to reach many different parts of the world. The Internet, local and satellite television and radio, and other popular media are the channels through which youth-oriented cultural influences are transferred using music, direct advertising, websites and other means. Defined within this context, the current youth culture is clearly international in nature, as the consumption habits associated with it are to be found wherever young people have purchasing power».
Mais um estudo que confirma aquilo que empiricamente se temia: o tempo não é elástico e se há mais telemóveis e leitores de audio digital, é normal que algo seja sacrificado. (só 16 por cento gastam o seu tempo «mediático» com a rádio)
«Bridge Ratings & Research recently concluded the second phase of its study on the media habits of 15-24 year olds and has confirmed initial perceptions that young people continue to spend less time listening to the radio as a result of increased use of the internet, cell phones and MP3 players. The study conducted during the second half of 2006 found that 33% of 15-24 year olds are listening to less radio as a result of their time on the Internet, while 10% are spending more time. The 33% number is up from 20% in a similar study taken in August 2005. Other findings of the study include: nearly a quarter (24%) watching less conventional TV with an almost identical number (22%) saying they are spending more time watching video on the Internet on such sites as YouTube, Yahoo! and MySpace, or streamed replays of prime time shows on TV network websites. The study also found that young people are spending most of their total media time (23%) online, more than watching television (22%), listening to the radio (16%) and listening to their MP3 players (19%). The study used a sample of 2620 people aged 15-24 years in Dallas, Washington, DC, Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, Portland (OR) and St. Louis (MO).»
fonte: «Bridge Ratings Youth Audience Media Use Study 2007», 14/02/07
Mark Ramsey, no seu Hear2.0, acha que não. Surpreendemente, defende que «my own research has clearly shown that heavy mp3 player users tend to listen to as much radio as anyone else - but are less satisfied with what they hear on the radio». Como?
quando se fala em publico dos 14 aos 29 anos muitas vezes a atitude da industria publicitária é esta: «"If it's young we can't sell it. We can't sell it because it's young."».
Ou seja, como lhe chama Mark Ramsey, trata-se de público "unsellable". Daí um nulo interesse em se lhes dirigir. Daí um desinteresse notório deste público na generalidade dos meios convencionais.
« Once, parents would say, "I want him to have all the things I never had." Now? "I want him to have all the things I have."
Fonte: Gen-X gives birth to stylish baby products, January 19, 2007, By Karen Sommer Shalett, Washington Post
A propósito: «No mundo desenvolvido, as pessoas consomem crianças, não as produzem. Têm-nas para se manterem felizes - em vez da solidariedade, as pessoas sentem necessidade de manter as suas necessidades satisfeitas. Assim, as crianças são o derradeiro bem de consumo. Não as vemos como parte de nós mesmos, colectiva ou individualmente: tendemos mais a encará-las como uma das coisas da nossa vida, em vez de nos revermos nas nossas crianças, o que revela aquilo que a nossa sociedade tem de mais autodestrutivo» (Castells, Manuel e Ince, Martin, Conversas com Manuel Castells; Porto: Campo das Letras; 2004: 87)
"When I was growing up," says Chris Anderson, author of the new media bestseller, The Long Tail, "you had top 40 radio. Generation Y-ers are just not listening to top 40 radio. They’re not listening to radio at all." Anderson, at 45, is hardly over the hill, but the shift between how he consumed culture and how today’s teenagers consume, has been dramatic. In The Long Tail, Anderson charts how consumption of media has shifted from a world of narrow broadcast spectrum, few television and radio stations and a handful of newspapers to a world of seemingly limitless choice. As the costs of creating and distributing media have collapsed, we have gone from a world of a few hits to a world where even the most arcane content has a commercially-viable audience.fonte: «The Impact of Digitalization», KPMG, 2007
«BRITAIN'S "wired generation" is increasingly shunning television, radio and newspapers in favour of online networking, websites and downloading media to phones and iPods. The 16-24-year age bracket now watches TV for an hour less per day than the average viewer and listens to 15 minutes a day less radio than average. They also say they read fewer newspapers because of their internet use. The findings emerge in Ofcom's communications market report for 2005. It says Britain's young people arrange their lives online and via mobile phones. But rather than just surfing the web, teenagers are increasingly fixated by networking websites such as Bebo and Myspace, which allow users to create virtual communities. More than 70 per cent of those aged between 16 and 24 said they used social networking websites, far higher than the UK average of 41 per cent. The urge to network is further illustrated by the fact that 37 per cent of under-24s say they have contributed to a blog or website message board, more than double the percentage among net users as a whole. The younger generation's reliance on mobile phones was also underlined by Ofcom's research. The under-24s make seven more mobile calls and send 42 more texts per week than the wider UK population. Claire Woffenden, deputy editor of Web User magazine, said young people were ditching traditional media for new technology because of the interactivity and personalisation it allowed. "What's appealing is being able to dictate their own agenda tailored to their own tastes," she said. "Why listen to the radio, when you can create your own personalised radio station? Instead of regimented TV listings, the likes of YouTube mean you can watch video clips on a variety of subjects whenever when you want to, or become an instant celebrity by creating your own." The increasing use of mobile phones is not just confined to teenagers, however. Ofcom says that one in ten households now rely exclusively on mobile phones and nearly a third of people regard their mobile as their main telephone, even if they have a landline at home. Mobile phones also appear to have doomed the public payphone. For the first time, none of those surveyed relied on payphones for their main means of making and receiving calls, compared to 2 per cent in 2004. »
fonte: Britain's 'wired generation' shuns traditional media for a life online, Scotsman, FERGUS SHEPPARD 11/08/06
«(...) For listeners, the appeal is threefold. First, they become their own programmers, mixing the music and talk feeds that they enjoy. This liberates commuters, say, from commercial radio stations that, in America especially, seem only ever to get dumber and duller. Second, podcasts liberate listeners from advertising, and thus put an end to the tedious and dangerous toggling between the car radio's pre-set buttons at 100km an hour. (However, some podcasters are experimenting with putting advertisements into their podcasts.) Above all, the time-shifting that podcasts make possible liberates people from having to sit in their parked cars to hear the end of a good programme. For creative types, professional or amateur, the appeal of podcasting is much the same as that of other participatory media: it dramatically lowers the costs of producing content. All they need is a microphone, a computer and an internet connection, and most people already have those. (...) Mr Mays claims that when people buy an iPod they will reduce their radio listening for a few months, but then increase it again to educate themselves about new music. “And where else to go for music than their local radio station?” asks Mr Mays. If they are young, they will go anywhere but to their local radio station, says David Goldberg, the music boss at Yahoo! “The odds that you and I like the same five songs in a row are very low,” he says. “If you hate Metallica, you're not going to sit through three minutes hoping that the fourth minute gets better.” To young people today, song sequences are simply “playlists”, which happen to be among the easiest things to share with friends online, so this is what Yahoo! concentrates on doing. It lets people listen to music (for a small monthly subscription or pay-by-download) and then rate the song. Yahoo! then uses its knowledge of the online communities formed by its users to recommend the right kinds of songs “by connecting you with other people who like the same music”, says Mr Goldberg. The effects on radio, while not lethal, will therefore be large. Radio broadcasters understand that they need to make commercial radio less disagreeable to listen to, which above all means shorter advertising interruptions. This is why Clear Channel has introduced a campaign called “less is more”, in which it sells fewer minutes to advertisers in the hope that this will drive up ratings and prices.»
fonte: «Heard on the street», Apr 20th 2006
«Music Choice, a provider of cable and satellite television-based audio and video content, recently counted its 600 millionth on-demand order. The accomplishment follows a heavy push into on-demand content by Music Choice, a blitz that recently included a major deal with Time Warner Cable. Damon Williams, a top programming executive at Music Choice, credited the accomplishment to "an extensive mix of music videos from established and emerging artists," as well as a programming focus that includes "original shows and exclusive performances". Music Choice is a joint venture involving Microsoft, Motorola, Sony, EMI Music, Comcast, Cox Communications and Time Warner Cable. Original programming is an important part of the on-demand mix for Music Choice. That includes series like Artist of the Month, which features an up-close look at chart-topping artists, and Certified, a show that allows users to vote for their favorite artists. The MTV-style showcases are designed to engage younger audiences, most of whom are comfortable with on-demand formats. Meanwhile, the Music Choice accomplishment is part of a much larger wave in on-demand programming, one that is completely transforming the passive television viewing experience. The Music Choice tally was certified by Rentrak, an independent data-tracking company.»
fonte: Music Choice Boasts 600 Million On-Demand Requests, Digital Music New, 18/01/07
Os dois quadros seguintes, publicados pela Bridge Ratings («Bridge Ratings 2007 Projections & Predictions», 1/01/07), mostram duas coisas muito claras (pelo menos nos EUA):
- 2007 vai continuar a ser um ano de queda para a rádio tradicional (por oposição à rádio atraves da internet ou, nos EUA, a rádio por satélite);
- a escuta de rádio entre os jovens virá para números nunca antes verificados (no primeiro quadro pode ver-se que desde 2002 que os jovens já não ouvem mais do que o universo de todos os ouvintes, neste caso com mais de 12 anos; em Portugal ainda temos mais escuta por parte de jovens do que o restante universo)
Afinal o problema existe...
«How can the industry build the habit of using radio into today’s youth and reach 12 to 24 year olds before they become addicted to iPods? Several programming consultants discussed those questions at Arbitron’s annual consultant meeting. Carolyn Gilbert, president of Clear Channel’s Critical Mass Media, said that radio traditionally follows the money and targets older listeners. Larry Rosin, of Edison Media Research, said radio hasn’t tried to reach 12 to 24-year-olds because it’s focused on the 25-54 demo. “There’s so many places for them to go, I think we’re kind of screwed,” said Fred Jacobs, president of Jacobs Media. He warns that if radio doesn’t start attacking the problem, the industry will have a hard time attracting youth to work in the industry. Rosin said Edison Media’s “30 Under 30” competition, reported here last week as his company’s efforts to find younger talent to work in all facets of radio, has received a “good response” with 150 nominations so far. »
fonte: rwonline, «Consultants Debate How to Lure Youth Back to Radio», 15/12/06
«Jacobs Media President Fred Jacobs added, "We got away with ignoring them because there was no money there. Since we were the only game in town, they wound up eventually finding us. But today, ere are all kinds of places for them to go. If they don't grow up with us, why would they come to us?" Jabobs added, "We are kind of screwed. We stand to lose a couple of generations."
Mark Ramsey concorda que a rádio tem ignorado este público. E que há uma ameaça concorrencial. Mas considera que a culpa não é da rádio:
«(...) this change in the nature of things - and in our future - was inevitable. Our challenge now is to create and target audiences in whatever media they want to be created and targeted in. Our challenge is to build audiences, young and old, and link them to advertisers. That challenge will never change. But nobody ever said we'd be meeting that challenge by using a radio tower.» (Hear2.0, 16/12/06)
«Goodbye to formatted radio - it's time to give control back to music's true fans, says Nettwerk Music Group CEO Terry McBride. In what McBride calls the "we-pod" era thanks to the file-sharing benefits of digital technology, the fans are slowly but surely regaining control over the music industry, and hearing music the way people did 30 years ago - "purely by recommendation," said McBride. "The uber-fan is going to consume music whatever way they want," meaning a growing trend away from TV and radio and towards the web. The digital movement is already well underway, and sooner rather than later, the majority of music sales will be done through fans, not traditional record labels that measure success by album sales, McBride said. And, while some have argued the music industry is on its last legs thanks to Internet sites such as Napster, the industry and its artists simply need to find new ways make money in the digital market. (...)»
fonte: «Internet killed the radio star, says tech guru», 24 Hours Vancouver, By ROBYN STUBBS,
«Just how powerful is the iPod? JupiterResearch recently noted that the Apple player is driving growth in the larger digital music sector. Music fans routinely download and explore, though Jupiter found that iPod and other device owners actively build digital collections specifically for portable use. "Over 60 percent of portable music device owners regularly rip music," said Jupiter senior analyst David Card. But only 25 percent of users overall rip music from their CDs, according to the finding. Card also noted that the use of playlists steadily increased among iPod users. "58 percent of iPod users, and 44 percent of users of other portable music devices use playlists," Card asserted. The findings are unsurprising, though a chicken-and-egg problem emerges. The most energized and interested music fans are likely to purchase an iPod or similar device, making it difficult to isolate the influence of the player. Regardless, the iPod is known to stimulate online purchasing, and iTunes downloads always rise following heavy sales periods. The device also stimulates other markets, and has spawned a healthy cottage industry based on device peripherals. Meanwhile, the study also examined the total number of files found on the average computer, and noted that only 18 percent of adults have collections greater than 1,000 songs. The study was released on Tuesday.»
«(...) the iPod isn't simply an updated Walkman. It's an entirely new beast: a revolutionary device that transforms listeners into "cyborgs" through a process he calls ''technotranscendence'" Unlike the Walkman, the iPod taps into a "hybrid entertainment matrix," in which functions like random shuffle are a key construct, not just a convenient marketing hook» (Kahney, 2005: 139).
«The New York Times complained, the iPod has transformed Manhattan into an island of 'zombie-like robots .,. the only sign they are not quite human: two white wires that run from their ears into their clothes, just below the neckline, as distinctive as the bolts in the Frankenstein monster's neck'.» (Kahney, 2005: 143)
- El joven de la Generación Youtube (GY, a partir de ahora) quiere interactuar, se aburre con algo que dure más de cinco minutos y, sobre todo, no tolera los anuncios. Por tanto, el modelo mediático tiene que cambiar.
- Se sienten más a gusto con SMS y con el messenger que con el teléfono.
- Quieren escribir sus vivencias, igual que los más adultos nos las contábamos oralmente. Esto es el resultado del acceso a tecnologías (fundamentalmente, el blog) que permiten ampliar mucho el radio de difusión de los mensajes, además de perpetuarlo
- Utilizan el ordenador socialmente. Muchos adultos todavía tienen la imagen de un niño solitario que se pasa el día pegado a la pantalla del ordenador jugando o viendo cosas indebidas
- Confían en que los blogs, la Wikipedia, Menéame y otros medios 2.0 puedan acabar con el monopolio de los medios tradicionales y sus mensajes teledirigidos y ultra-controlados por los poderes fácticos. Algunos, entre los que figuran muchos adultos, creen incluso que las nuevas tecnologías sociales van a terminar con muchos políticos y empresarios poco participativos y anclados en el pasado
Tudo aqui: Como es la generation YouTube?
«Over the past five years, there have been numerous incremental changes that, added together, have substantially expanded the presence of media in young people's lives. Today, there are more young people with cable or satellite TV in their home (up from 74% to 82%), with subscriptions to premium TV channels (from 45% to 55%), with three or more VCRs or DVD players (from 26% to 53%), and with multiple video game consoles (from 49% to 56%) in their homes. And more of these media have migrated to young people%u2019s bedrooms: there are more young people with a VCR or DVD player (from 36% to 54%), with cable or satellite TV (from 29% to 37%), with computers (from 21% to 31%), and with Internet access (from 10% to 20%) in their bedrooms. (...) The fact that there is such a remarkable consistency in the amount of time spent each day with media over this five-year period indicates that young people may well have hit a ceiling in terms of the portion of their day they can afford to devote to media. As new media technologies, content, or activities become available, they don’t give up old media, and don’t (or can’t) increase the number of hours they spend with media—so they are increasingly becoming media multitaskers, instant messaging while doing homework and watching TV». One noticeable change over the past five years is the rapid expansion of access to and use of computers and the Internet. The proportion of children with home computers went up from 73% to 86%, with many families having two or more computers at home (39%, compared to 25% in 1999). Home Internet access rocketed from 47% to 74%. Today, as noted above, nearly one-third of young people have a computer in their bedroom (31% vs. 21% five years ago) and the proportion with Internet access in their room has doubled, increasing from 10% to 20%. In 1999, in a typical day about half (51%) of all 8- to 18-year-olds used a computer, compared to 62% today, and the proportion who go online for more than an hour went from 15% to 27%. The average amount of time spent on a computer (outside of schoolwork) more than doubled, from 0:27 to 1:02. The amount of time young people spend looking at Web sites for something other than schoolwork doubled»
Which Media Young People Use In a typical day, percentage of 8- to 18-year-olds who…: ver tv 81%, ouvir rádio, 74%; ouvir CD/Cassete/mp3, 68%
Time Spent With Media Average amount of time 8- to 18-year-olds spend per day…: ver tv 3:04; ouvir rádio 0:55; ouvir CD/cassete/mp3: 0:49; estar on line, 0:48
Most Popular Media Activities In a typical day, percentage of 8- to 18-year-olds who spend more than an hour…: ver TV 66%, ouvir musica 44%; usar computadores 28%
Media in Children’s Bedrooms Percentage of 8- to 18-year-olds with bedrooms containing…: leitor de CD ou cassetes, 86%; radios, 84%; TV, 64%
Portable Media Ownership Percentage of 8- to 18-year-olds who have their own…: leitor de Cd ou walkman 61%, consola portatil de jogos: 55%, telefone portatil 39%; LAD 18%
fonte: «G E N E R A T I O N M : M E D I A I N T H E L I V E S O F 8 – 1 8 Y E A R - O L D S", A Kaiser Family Foundation Study, Março 2005
Chama-se Boomboxbay (http://www.boomboxbaby.ca/) e apresenta-se como uma rádio para jovens com menos de 18 anos.
"BoomBoxBaby.ca is billed as 'online radio for teens and by teens.' It is being staffed largely by board-ops at sister modern CFNY and N/T CFMJ (AM640), with an assist from longtime CFNY programmer Alan Cross... Corus also says there are plans to include the channel on its digital music service, Max Trax... (http://www.kurthanson.com/archive/news/111606/index.asp)
«Younger listeners are most likely to respond positively to fewer commercials. As we have observed throughout this study, younger listeners say they are more “annoyed” by the amount of commercials. However, they are also the most likely to respond positively to radio stations that play noticeably fewer commercials. Over one-third of listeners ages 12 to 24 are already aware of stations playing fewer and shorter commercial breaks. When asked if they would listen to their favorite radio station more if it played a certain fewer number of commercials per hour, listeners ages 12 to 24 were much more likely than older listeners to respond that they would listen to the station more. A spot load strategy of fewer commercials is more likely to find fertile ground among younger listeners. (...)
Owners of iPods and other portable MP3 players are more likely to find radio commercials to be intrusive. One in six respondents in this survey own an iPod® or another portable MP3 player. These MP3 player owners are more likely to say that radio commercials are “always” or “usually” intrusive (34%) than are those who do not own a portable MP3 player (24%). This group is more likely to be younger, and, as we have seen throughout this survey, younger radio listeners are more likely to have their amount of listening affected by commercials. However, as we have seen in our most recent survey, Internet and Multimedia 2005, the time spent listening to radio per day reported by owners of iPods and other portable MP3 players is only slightly less than average.»
fonte: «Spot Load Study 2005:Managing Radio Commercial Inventoriesfor Advertisers and Listeners», Arbitron/Edison Media Research Spot Load Study 2005:
A partir deste quadro percebe-se que os jovens entre os 12 e os 17 dos EUA passaram de 65 horas por semana em 1993 para 51 horas em 2006 (Edison Media Research, via Arbitron). Menos 22%.
«O excesso de música está a mudar a forma como a experimentamos. A geração iPod já não a ouve, colecciona-a (...) "A maior parte das pessoas está mais preocupada com a capacidade de armazenamento do iPod do que propriamente com a musica. Sei, porque já fui assim", dIz [Pedro Ernesto]. "Às tantas percebi que acumulava música por acumular".»
fonte: Público, «ALguém desliga a música, por favor!», Vítor Belanciano, 29/10/06
De acordo com o New York Times:
«Radio listening among teenagers has dropped off and, according to Larry Rosin, the president of Edison Media Research, two factors are involved. The first is the intense competition for media audience time that has developed in the last dozen years. In addition to Web surfing, cellphones, video games, movies, television and the chime of instant messages, portable music players and downloadable songs are vying for teenage ears. The second, he said, is “radio’s unwillingness to target listeners in the 12- to 24-year-old demographic. The overwhelming majority of stations target the 25- to 54-year-old group, what is known in the industry as the ‘money demo.’ ” Listening hours have dropped almost 21 percent for 18- to 24-year-olds in the last 10 years, but they still listen for 18 hours in an average week, almost six hours more than their younger siblings. Weekly radio-listening hours have dropped 19 percent in the 12-to-17 demographic. And listeners under 12 years old? “Nobody is targeting them except Radio Disney,” Mr. Rosin said.» (fonte: «The Youngsters Aren’t Listening as Much», 16/10/06, New Yor Times, SHELLY FREIERMAN).
Mark Ramsey não concorda:
«Isn't the real problem (if it's a "problem") that tastes among teens and college-age kids have atomized into droplet-sized formats no wider than each listener's iPod and the roster of bands tagged as "friends" on MySpace? Now, more than ever, under-25's can get what they want in a way that radio is incapable of servicing. Should we blame ourselves for not chasing the un-catchable? Should we blame our sellers for not "selling harder" to under-25's? I don't think so. The fear, of course, is that if young listeners don't develop a relationship to radio now, they never will. Maybe. That depends on what's on it.» (fonte Hear2, Mark Ramsey, «Where did all the under-25's go?», 17/10/06
Transistor kills the radio star?
Um blogue de suporte a uma investigação sobre a rádio do futuro - ou o que quer que ela se venha a chamar...
Textos de referência