Se muestran los artículos pertenecientes al tema 3.0 O segundo choque.
A crise presente da rádio é tambem a crise de um determinado modelo comercial. «Barnouw (1970) maintained that since radio's inception in the 1920s, the notion of using program content to expose audiences to embedded advertising messages has proven to be a winning business model.» (47); «From a business perspective, Alexander (1997) maintained that the primary goal of radio programming is to maximize the size of an audience targeted by advertisers and the only way to accomplish this goal is to satisfy the needs and wants of that audience. "Uses and gratifications" has long been a popular approach to understanding audience motivations for tuning to radio and television programming. The underlying presumption is that audiences are not passive nonjudgmental receivers of media but are, rather, active seekers of program content that will satisfy specific needs. From practical considerations, such as wanting information about traffic congestion, to more abstract psychological desires, such as relief from emotional stress, listening patterns are determined by each person's expectations of how well different media or programs will gratify their needs (Rubin & Perse, 1994)» (pag 48)
- «(...) among the several motivations for switching stations, avoiding commercials was ranked the highest»(48/49)
- «the dominant motivation for switching radio stations was the desire to avoid commercials or zapping. Tied to this behavior was the tendency to abandon a commercial break almost immediately-even when listening to a "favorite station." Again, these findings are consistent with Abernathy (1991) who found that the first commercial in a break had a better chance of being exposed than later commercials within a cluster.» (60) McDowell and Dick, 2003
So, there you have just a few of the reasons the radio industry is in the toilet. There are more. Believe me, I didn't leave out any success stories -- at least from the stock price perspective, their own barometer for success.
COLLIANO, Jerry del, «Grading the Radio Groups » Inside Music Media, 14/07/08
«Listening to the radio is fine when driving near your home, but if your trip is longer than half an hour, you're going to lose reception. You need digital audio in your car. (...) You'll need a way to connect your digital audio to your car stereo:»
Eis algumas hipoteses aqui
A partir de um estudo divulgado recentemente, algumas conclusões:
- O mercado global de publicidade na rádio vale apenas 9 por cento do bolo (ligeiramente menos do que há quatro anos); Este nove por cento não correspondem às audiencias da rádio e ao seu impacto, havendo lugar a uma subavaliação do impacto da rádio (que, assim, está muito barata).
Também fica claro que uma hora a ouvir rádio é muito mais barata do que uma hora na televisão, na internet ou mesmo a ler o jornal:
«If the key to media exposure (and thus advertising effectiveness) is the time that people spend reading, watching, using or listening to the medium, says O’Reilly, how much do advertisers invest in reaching their audience?
O estudo completo aqui: http://www.wan-press.org/IMG/pdf/WAN_Savoy_Prese_on_25-01-06.pdf
O guru Al Ries acha que «Radio is a powerful medium with great selectivity at relatively low costs, but Radiado threatens the very existence of the medium. Too much is too much»: O problema, diz, é que a rádio tem excesso de publicidade. Por isso diz que «For every ad that radio stations used to run, it now seems like they run two. Radio, in my opinion, has become Radiado, an extra "ad" inserted at every possible point in the programming». E no seu dia a dia, «My favorite radio personality is Neal Boortz, a nationally syndicated talk-show host who broadcasts out of Atlanta on 171 stations. I listen to Boortz every morning during the commute to my office in Roswell. Yet at the top of the hour, I turn off my radio and don’t turn it back on until 8 minutes after the hour. Why? Because that’s radio’s black hole. Eight solid minutes of commercials, traffic, weather, news and more commercials. The second black hole occurs at the bottom of the hour, but it’s not quite as bad. I turn off my radio for only 6 minutes». Por isso conclui que «The biggest health problem in America today is obesity. The biggest advertising problem in America today is obesity, too»
fonte: «How Radio Is Becoming RadiADo», AL Ries, Advertising Age, 4/03/07
Mark Ramsey já comentou: «(...) ask the deeper question: If radio featured significantly less advertising, would that keep listeners away from their CD’s and iPods and satellite radios and TV’s and video games? Indeed, would that make the radio industry a healthier one? Less is not more unless less is zero. Then less is called "subscription."»
«During the Q&A portion of the Cox earnings call on Tuesday, Cox Radio President/CEO Bob Neil said, “We continually fight to try and make advertisers understand what the value of our medium is. It's not unlike the fight that our media brothers and sisters go through all the time.
fonte: «Cox's Neil: I'll Take Radio», radio Ink, 1/03/07
- Lee Abrams, director do canal satélite XM e conhecido programador dos EUA, afirmou no seu blogue a capacidade de resilência da rádio: «years ago, there was similar talk about when 8 Track, cassette and later CD players were integrated into cars. That same "radio is dead" talk. Radio is resilient. It was given it's last rites in 1955 when TV became mainstream»;
O modelo herdado /construido a partir da herança televisiva deixou a rádio sobreviver mas amarrou-a a um esquema de consumo secundário extremamente passivo. Por isso há apenas ouvintes (e não os que escutam)?
A rádio é o meio mais passivo de todos; de tal maneira passivo que não precisa de atenção, deixa que quem ouve faça outras coisas em primeiro lugar;
esta é a conveniência da rádio actual, dos ultimos 50 anos. Ora ouvir (usar) por conveniencia não é um bom atributo, um bom trunfo (é pouco...), quando a rádio, continuando a ser conveniente, tiver a concorrência de meios mais convenientesm, deixa de ser conveniente? É o que acontece no presente (e tenderá a acontecer no futuro). Quando houver terminais multimédia operados por voz no carro, quando os leitores de m+úsica já vierem com milhoes de musicas por um baixo preço, a rádio deixa de ser tão conveniente
3.0 A rádio tal como a conhecemos; ainda sem o impacto da net; no fundo, a rádio do passado e do presente; a rádio tem sido um sucesso, e um bom negócio; os sinais de crise que se acentuaram sempre estiveram latentes mas não teriam impacto; o sentimento bipolar; três fases: negação, confusão, adesão
3.1 Os sinais de crise que existiam antes do impacto da digitalização (não são os sinais da crise geração iPod): queda nas audiencias; queda nas receitas publicitárias, quena na cotação das bolsas, queixas relativamente à falta de variedade na oferta das progranações e na estagnação tecnológica; as ameaças que apareceram;
3.2 O optimismo; a negação; a historia não se repete [ESTE OPTIMISMO VAI SER UMA CONSTANTE,. UMA MARCA DESTA INDUSTRIA/ACTIVIDADE; APARECE SEMPRE QUE HÁ PROBLEMAS; SEMPRE QUE HÁ DIFICULDADES]
3.3 A net põe em causa a ideia de rádio (transição e hibridismo); os primeiros sinais; evoluir ou reinventar-se?
La radio ha pasado unos años desbordada por la innovación cnológjca y programática de la televisión y ha perdido audiencia por la entrega de la sociedad a ésta. Sin embargo, la adio ha resistido y se mantiene con vigor.» (CHerreros, 2007: 12)
«One of the many reasons radio has lost the next generation is that music stations are unremarkable. They are vanilla. Sound the same. Too repetitious. Too many commercials. Too phony. Not real» (Jerry del Colliano, Radio: Bob Dylan, Program Director, Inside Music Media, 27/06/08 http://insidemusicmedia.blogspot.com/2008/06/radio-bob-dylan-program-director.html)
(justifica-se este optimismo? um optimismo que esquece as ameaças, apenas vê as oportunidades
«Hoy por hoy, la radio no es un medio obsoleto, todo lo contrario, es el medio más vivo y más inmediato e, incluso, tenemos la posibilidad de escuchar desde cualquier parte del mundo los programas más seguidos y las emisoras líderes del país que más nos lnterese, gracias a Internet» (Peñafiel, 2007: 36)
A rádio que chega até à década de 90 do século passado é basicamente aquela que Lazarsfeld ajudou a idealizar e que Adorno criticou. Mudaram algumas coisas, como o local de escuta, que passou de casa para o carro, e perdeu-se a socialização dessa escuta (de acto colectivo passou a ser individual), mas a rádio é basicamente a mesma, a mesma industria cultural: mesmo a segmentação da oferta, última grande 'transformação' que marcou a rádio pós-televisão, pode ser vista como a evolução natural da procura - inevitável - de públicos mais adequados aos interesses dos anunciantes, que não se importam de gastar mais para ter menos publico, desde que esse público seja o certo (da mesma forma que, há que o reconhecer, essa segmentação da oferta também corresponderá a uma certa segmentação social e cultural ao nível dos mais variados interesses especializados- que a digitalização continua a potenciar, até chegar aos interesses individuais)
«Once I published this article in Radio & Records noting the difference in listening between college grads and non-college grads, I have been rightfully asked the following question: "Has it always been this way?" So I looked at the diary data from the sample of diarykeepers from our longstanding series of studies with Arbitron.
College Grads ages 25-54 listened to an average of 86 Quarter-Hours per week
In 2008: Non-College Grads ages 25-54 listened to an average of 100 Quarter-Hours per week
College Grads ages 25-54 listened to an average of 70 Quarter-Hours per week
In addition, the portion of 25-54s that are College graduates increased from 33% of 25-54s to 41% of 25-54s. What does this mean? That nearly all the 25-54 losses in TSL over the last decade are coming from college grads. The Non-grads are listening virtually the same amount.» Has Radio Lost the College Grads? Larry Rosin Edison Media research 10/06/08
O que mostra este estudo é que a queda nas audiências de rádio é genérica e não apenas na geração iPod; esta apenas radicaliza este afastamento (mas as queixas são genéricas e não específicas).
USADO «Perante esta realidade de múltiplas ofertas – juntando a crescente digitalização de milhões de canções, descarregadas legal ou ilegalmente em grandes quantidades, e a multiplicação de editoras que existem sobretudo na Internet (web-labels) – é possível concluir que o consumidor tem o controlo: 1) Os fãs deixaram de estar dependentes da rádio (ou de terem de comprar o disco) para contactarem com determinado artista; 2) Os fãs são cada vez mais interactivos: pedem, exigem, sugerem. Comunicam; 3) Uma canção vive e pode conseguir sucesso sem chegar à rádio. (...) A rádio, habituada a fabricar os sucessos, confronta-se com uma nova realidade: ter de se associar a esses sucessos para não perder ouvintes – que provavelmente já os conhecem de outros acessos.» (Meneses, 2007: 5) UMA RELAÇÂO PASSIVA E PERFEITA ENTRE RÁDIO E INDUSTRIA MUSICAL: «A decisão sobre a inclusão ou não nas listas de difusão era, aliás, um dos três grandes problemas colocados pelas rádios à indústria, juntamente com a formatação por estilos de música, que obriga a uma arrumação nem sempre pacífica, e a estratégia das editoras, que procura “vender o máximo de cópias do mínimo de produtos, o que, dada a expansão da rádio aos níveis local e mundial, permite concluir que o aumento do tempo de emissão se fez difundindo a mesma música” (Neves, 1999:74). Tirando estas excepções, indústria e rádios casaram durante décadas sem crises: de uma forma muito simples, as editoras davam a música às rádios, as rádios divulgavam-na. Tudo de borla, portanto, evitando com que as editoras gastassem muito em publicidade e as rádios tivessem de pagar pelos conteúdos que transmitiam (Neves, 1999:73). A construção de programas com base no top de vendas será provavelmente a representação máxima da relação passiva entre indústria e rádio» (Meneses, 2007: 7)
UMA RELAÇÂO PASSIVA E PERFEITA ENTRE RÁDIO E INDUSTRIA MUSICAL: «A decisão sobre a inclusão ou não nas listas de difusão era, aliás, um dos três grandes problemas colocados pelas rádios à indústria, juntamente com a formatação por estilos de música, que obriga a uma arrumação nem sempre pacífica, e a estratégia das editoras, que procura “vender o máximo de cópias do mínimo de produtos, o que, dada a expansão da rádio aos níveis local e mundial, permite concluir que o aumento do tempo de emissão se fez difundindo a mesma música” (Neves, 1999:74). Tirando estas excepções, indústria e rádios casaram durante décadas sem crises: de uma forma muito simples, as editoras davam a música às rádios, as rádios divulgavam-na. Tudo de borla, portanto, evitando com que as editoras gastassem muito em publicidade e as rádios tivessem de pagar pelos conteúdos que transmitiam (Neves, 1999:73). A construção de programas com base no top de vendas será provavelmente a representação máxima da relação passiva entre indústria e rádio» (Meneses, 2007: 7)
«Sin embargo el momento radiofónico actual es complejo como pocos en la historia del medio y requiere una abnegada e ingeniosa atención. Y si la circunstancia merece esmero, reflexión y vigilancia es porque la situación es mucho más peligrosa que la generada por la llegada de la televisión. Posiblemente este sea el conflicto más complejo de los vividos por la radio hasta el momento presente porque afecta a su propia raíz. A la radio y - no se olvide-, a los demás medios de comunicación" (Faus Belau in Martinéz- Costa, 2001: 16)
MARTINÉZ-COSTA, Maria (ed) (2001).Reiventar la radio. Pamplona: Ediciones
«Radio, shedding talent as fast as it loses audience, is rapidly becoming irrelevant to the younger generation»
fonte: FISHER, Mark, Weakening Signals Washington Post, 1/06/08
«Depressed by the rise of new technologies and their own fading place in the media landscape, neither those who own and run AM and FM radio stations nor even the new (but not new enough) satellite pay radio services are nurturing the kind of eccentric, iconoclastic voices that made radio so alluring from the 1950s into the '80s. Through those decades, when TV dominated American popular culture, radio was at once a mass medium and a clubhouse, a place where listeners could believe themselves to be part of an unseen community of like-minded people. Today, with the Internet having taken over as the primary provider of semi-private meeting spots, radio stations are cutting costs and bleeding talent, ceding the leading edge to the Web's collection of micro-audiences and the iPod's promise of infinite, but closely held, choice (...) Yet the more I listened to the likes of Pandora.com, Last.fm, Slacker.com and all manner of music blogs and Web radio, the more I heard the sound of automation -- sleek, efficient recommendation engines scientifically selecting the music I am most likely to like, yet missing out almost on what radio once offered: a glimpse into the hearts and passions of personalities who knew what music was new and cool, voices that offered a guided tour of unknown worlds, and sometimes even a frontal assault of the unexpected.» fonte: FISHER, Mark, Weakening Signals Washington Post, 1/06/08
«In the Spring of 2007, if one aggregates all of Arbitron's diary markets (essentially the whole country except for Philadelphia and Houston), the weekly listening was as follows:
Not a College Grad: 18 hours 45 minutes
Incredibly, I've never seen this talked about before, despite the fact that it has been possible to find this data all along. But this finding actually understates the difference. That's because the 'non-college-grad' group includes all the teenagers, who have always given significantly less Time Spent Listening (TSL) to radio. So look at the numbers if we look at listening among 25-54 year olds:
Not a College Grad: 21 Hours 15 minutes
Wow. As you can see in Figure 1, below, college grads listen to five and one-half fewer hours of radio per week, on average, than those who have not attained a college education.
Is it that the programming available from commercial radio is just not appealing enough to college graduates? Has our programming simply chased college grads away from the dial? Or is it that college graduates just have less time available for radio listening and more income to buy replacements like iPods and Satellite Radio, and it is not a function of the programming?» fonte: «Has Radio Lost the College Grads?, Edison Media Research, Larry Rosin, Maio (30?) 2008
(uma visão optimista...)
«Bob Pittman may be known to most of the world as an Internet visionary, but he was a broadcaster first and he told the NAB Show Radio Luncheon yesterday that it is frustrating to hear people talk about radio as if there’s something wrong with the business. “Radio is mobile, it’s easy to use, it has a lot of choice,” Pittman said. Repeating comments we’d heard him use previously when talking about new media, he said what makes a great consumer business is convenience and brand – and “radio wins on both counts.” The one-time radio programmer noted, “I think there are probably no better brand builders in the world than radio programmers.” Despite all of the hype about the Internet replacing broadcasting, Pittman, who is currently an investor in radio and TV groups as well as new media, insisted “the Internet is not television or radio.” People still turn to broadcasting for entertainment, while they use the Internet to manage their lives.» fonte: Pittman: Internet does not compete with radio and television, RBR 15 April, 2008
(será um erro entender a Internet como uma espécie de meio que vem concorrer com os clássicos; a Internet não concorre com um, mas com todos. Mas a Internet concorre, integrando os anteriores, juntando-os, convergindo, criando algo de novo, fazendo coexistir os antigos mas de forma diferente, alterando-os; se a Internet fosse um meio concorrente, a história poderia repetir-se; assim, do que estamos a falar é de uma nova categoria, de uma nova ideia de comunicação)
«The history and evolution of media resemble that of species in nature: The introduction of a new medium (species) typically changes the uses and interactions among the existing media. This is not surprising given that the system consisting of media and ecological systems are both based on very similar principles (e.g., the survival of the fittest). (...) This is, in fact, how media have evolved as well Following the introduction of movies over a short span of time, they enjoyed their golden age, accompanied by relatively little change, until radio came along. The evolution of radio, television, and interactive media has followed the same general pattern. (...).
To survive radio’s challenge, the motion picture industry was forced to move to sound and later to color films. More direct and compelling challenges to movies came from television. Television provided the same entertainment function that movies provided but with the added convenience of delivering programs directly to homes. To survive this threat, the movie industry had to cooperate with television by providing materials for broadcasting. As for radio, it had to reinvent itself to survive the television challenge. Radio was forced to move from being a staple at the center of the living room to becoming portable and physically going to where television could not. The television industry, in an effort to survive with multimedia, introduced high-definition television, a breakthrough toward the computerization of home television sets. This digital technology is expected to provide multimedia Internet services for the television networks and local stations. Radio, too, has taken the step toward digital broadcasting in what is referred to as digital audio broadcasting. (PAIK, 2001: 24-25)
«(...)by 1930, 46% of American households had a radio, and 10 years later that number had grown to more than 80%. By 1970, radio ownership had already reached 98%, nearly the current ownership rate (99%). Of course, one may question the appropriateness of radio ownership as a measure of radio's popularity, for it is entirely possible that a great many radios simply sat unused, collecting dust. However, as seen (...), the increase in ownership is matched by a comparable increase in the number of radio stations» (Paik, 2001: 11)
«the number of people listening to AM/FM broadcasts at the average moment has declined from 23.5 million to 21.1 million people. “More than ever before”? Sorry, not by this definition of “radio”.) (Arbitron data available here.)
«In-home radio listening – as was the case in the ’07 study – is diminished as respondents continue to utilize other media in their residences. (This was an alarming pattern that we saw up-close and personal in "The Bedroom Project.") In-car and at work listening, and audio streaming display positive momentum.»
«TechSurvey 2008», Jacobs Media, Março 2008
«“We’re like water, like electricity – people love us, but they don’t think about us very much.” Jeff Smulyan acknowledges that radio’s got its challenges – though it’s “not newspaper”, as I’ll explain in a moment. But he thinks “our biggest problem is one of perception.” Meaning that American use radio all the time, but don’t think about it. Part of that “engage the consumer” business is to make sure that radio’s available on “every mobile phone, PDA and mp3 player within five years.” The Emmis boss says “we have to be there, we have to be 360 degrees, everywhere our customers are.” Many Nokia and Sony phones around the world already come equipped with radio, and Jeff says in this country, “We believe it’s a perfect solution to the WARN Act” about emergency notification. There are “discussions with the American cellular industry” about making radio standard in phones. As for iPods: Jeff says a radio unit is already a best-selling accessory for the iPod. (Nobody asked about AM radio, by the way: it’s got a less-certain path to inclusion in future devices.) Smulyan insists that radio “isn’t hiding from new technology, we’re driving it.” But there were direct challenges from the audience during the Q&A » (Radio-Info.com, «Wanted: Some backbone», 3,04,08
OU COMO SE PROVA QUE UM MEIO PODE SUBSTITUIR O OUTRO SE TIVER VANTAGENS SOBRE O ANTERIOR:
«The Pony Express operated from 1860 to 1861. It was an expensive service for letters and most people couldn’t afford the up to .00 dollar cost of sending mail. The founders always assumed the federal government would come through with a contract to provide most of their income. It never happened. The U.S. government decided a new technology called the “telegraph” would be better and eventually, The Pony Express folded. Both services were able to deliver messages – one by traditional letters via riders, the other by Morse Code via wire. Both the Pony Express and telegraph delivered the same content. The telegraph just was able to do it faster and cheaper.
Is AM and FM today’s “Pony Express” and WiMax the next “telegraph”? When WiMax takes hold, Internet Radio and Podcasting might be able to do it better than AM and FM because startup costs for stations will be very modest, no one will need to apply for a license to broadcast, the F.C.C. won’t have control over WiMax-enabled radio stations (at least as of now), and stations will be able to narrowcast to a smaller audience with more unique content because less overhead will make it easier to support niche programming. Given that scenario, this is no time for anyone in traditional Radio to look down their nose at the upstarts and wannabes because it is only a matter of time until they are given the technological footing to compete equally. All they will have to do is come up with good content – better content than old media did.» (How Will We Define Radio in the Future? Corey Deitz, 3/01/07)
«(...) the Arbitron ratings service tracks the amount of time Americans spend listening to radio, and its numbers show a steady drop since 1993, particularly among listeners age twelve to twenty-four. Duncan's American Radio, an influential industry source of statistics (owned by Clear Channel), says listening is at its lowest point in the survey's history, dropping 17 percent in the first three years of the twenty-first century alone» (Fisher, 2007: 294)
«Virtually everyone in radio believes the medium has become less fun, less creative, and just plain less worth listening to than at any other point since its birth» (Fisher, 2007: 294)
«Stories about "why radio sucks" and "why radio stinks" popped up in the press. When Prince opened a concert at New York's Lincoln Center by asking, "How do y'all like your radio stations, New York City?" the crowd responded with a booming chorus of boos. At FCC meetings, activists favoring radio diversity dogged commissioners, urging them to defy the big corporations and return control of the airwaves to the public. And on the radio, Tom Petty, recently inducted into the Rock the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, sang "The Last DJ": 'And there goes the last DJ
Who plays what he wants to play
And says what he wants to say»
(Fisher, 2007: 295)
«In 2002, when a train passing trough Minot derailed, releasing a toxic cloud of anhydrous ammonia fertilizer, local police tried to reach someone at the stations to get word about about the danger. There was no one at the studios of KCJB, the area's designated emergency broadcaster. The station was on automatic, running satellite-fed programming from Clear Channel. Even if there had been someone on duty, it's not clear how the station would have responded: among Clear Channel's six stations in Minot, there was only one full-time news staffer.» (Fisher, 2007: 282-283)
«Payola - gifts and payments to deejays made as inducement for playing records - wasn't illegal. Nor was payola new - in the heyday of sheet music, song pluggers handed out cash to get barroom pianists to play their tunes, and in the 1930s and '40s, promoters paid bandleaders to push their songs» (Fisher, 2007: 79)
«Others stuck to legal forms of persuasion. "I never gave a disc jockey money in my life," says Frank Falise, a promoter who worked the mid-Atlantic states for Universal, MCA, Capitol, and other record companies. "But you took care of those jocks very well. You made sure they got plenty of records, backstage meets with the artists, photos with the artists, great tickets. If they can take their listeners backstage to see Elton John, that builds their audience and helps them make more money at their station. There's no payola the way it was forty years ago, but the business was always based on relationships. "» (Fisher 2007: 288)
«(...) the number of licensed radio stations has continued to creep up. It grew to 13,977 as of Dec. 31, 2007; that compares to 13,837 stations at the end of the year before. Breaking it down, there are 4,776 AMs, 6,309 FMs and 2,892 educational FMs, which the FCC lists separately. (...) there are 22 more AMs in the United States than one year ago, 43 more FMs and 75 more FM educationals.
More interestingly, how do these latest figures compare to 10 years ago? The numbers tell a 10-year story: no growth in AM signals, but boom times for FM educationals, translators and boosters. Total stations in 1997 would have been described as “above 12,000.” As of December of that year, according to FCC statistics we compared, there were 4,762 AMs — virtually no net change in AM station count from today (and down from 4,804 at the end of 2002; AMs were just shy of 5,000 in 1990). There were about 5,540 FMs 10 years ago, so that category is up about 14% in the decade since; and there were only about 1,900 FM educationals, a number that grew 50% in the subsequent decade.»
fonte: «Number of Licensed Radio Stations Grows Radioworldnewsbites 21,03,08
«Here are the revenue trend totals from the past 10 years, according to RAB statistics:
fonte: radioworld newsbytes What a Difference a Decade Makes 7/02/08
A partir da ideia de Fidler (mediamorfosis)«Podemos destacar como segundo item a metamorfose onde os novos meios não aparecem espontaneamente e independentes. Eles emergem gradualmente da transformação de meios mais antigos, porém com o surgimento de novos meios os anteriores tendem a se adaptar continuando seu processo de evolução ao invés de serem extintos. A história da comunicação humana apóia esse argumento quando notamos que o surgimento da fotografia não extinguiu a pintura, que o cinema não inviabilizou a foto e que a tv não exterminou o rádio. Esta situação também pode ser explicada pelo terceiro princípio que a sobrevivência, onde os meios de comunicação são compelidos a se adaptarem e evoluírem para se manterem “vivo” como qualquer empresa atuando no mercado capitalista. A quarta característica do processo descrito por Fidler é a oportunidade que esta baseada no fato que sempre há uma razão social, política ou econômica que motive o desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias nos meios. É importante destacar que estas adaptações não ocorrem somente em função da tecnologia»
«JP Morgan analysts think radio ad revenue will fall 3% this year.
fonte:Radio Is in Ad Recession, JP Morgan Analysts Say RWOnline, 29/02/08
«O rádio convencional, mais cedo ou mais tarde, se transformará num parente do antigo gramofone, um símbolo de um período, objecto destinado à exposição em museus» (Kischinhevsky, 2007: 126)
«Uma tecnologia não erradica necessariamente a outra, emhora possa tomar espaços e atenções das mídias já existentes. Mas podemos tomar como exemplo os discos de vinil, que, no espaço de poucos anos, foram transformados em sucata (ou, na melhor das hipóteses, itens de colecionador), graças a um inédito acordo entre as grandes corporações da indústria fonográfica. Acordo esse que estabeleceu hábeis estratégias para conquistar a adesão do consumidor a uma nova tecnologia, digital, enbora de qualidade nem sempre superior à dos antigos long-plays analógicos.«(KISCHINHEVSK, 2007: 14).
e o DAT da sony, que não se impôs como substituto da cassete analógica, acabando por desaparecer.
«After years of reaping the benefits of consolidation and cost-cutting, radio is in desperate straits. According to the Future of Music Coalition, the amount of time Americans spend listening to the radio is at a 27-year low and the number of listeners has dropped 17 percent in the last 13 years.
Broadcast radio faces challenges from satellite radio companies for listeners, from the Internet for advertisers and even from automakers who are making it increasingly easy for drivers to turn their car stereos into mirror images of their iPods and skip the radio altogether.
Cutbacks haven’t worked out so well, serving only to speed the exit of listeners and making it harder to maintain smaller and smaller profit margins. Increasingly conservative playlists have made radio less essential to even the most casual of music fans, who don’t feel like they’re missing anything if they don’t listen every day since the same 10 or 15 songs are in heavy rotation for a month or longer.»
«NEW YORK – February 20, 2008: Reacting to the RAB's report that overall radio revenue declined 6%, Wachovia Securities analyst Marci Ryvicker today issued a report in which she described the result as a "horrible start to the new year" for the industry. In the report, Ryvicker also cut her Q1 forecast for the industry.
INSIDE RADIO Thursday, February 21, 2008
«“Every year, we wonder if this is the year where radio in Canada finally kicks the bucket and performs along the lines of its dreadful old-media brethren,” says Mr. Bayard in a recent note to clients. “And every year, we are surprised by radio’s resilience in the face of ever-increasing competition from alternative sources for information [and] entertainment.”
In fiscal 2007, which ended in August, the radio industry posted growth of 3.9%, according to figures published by the Radio Marketing Bureau. While this growth was restrained in comparison to a 6.5% increase a year earlier, the first four months of fiscal 2008 have so far produced growth of 5.6%,says Mr. Bayard.
Among radio’s strengths, he says, is its cost-effectiveness relative to other media, and the fact that radio rates highest for “the ability to connect with the consumer” who is close to making a purchase.»
fonte: Signals strong for radio industry, Astral and Corus, Posted: February 19, 2008, 9:02 AM by Jonathan Ratner
«Radio reaches a large portion of adults on a weekly basis, but time spent listening is at a 27-year low. In September 2002, Duncan’s American Radio reported that the “average persons rating” – the percentage of the U.S. population listening to the radio in any average quarter hour – has experienced a near-17 percent drop in listening over the last 13 years.» Future of Music Coalition, Radio Deregulation: Has It Served Citizens and Musicians?
«Many people are dissatisfied with the state of commercial radio in the U.S. today. “It all sounds the same” and “there’s nothing there for me” are common complaints. Observers point to consolidation in the radio industry as the cause. Since 1996, when Congress deregulated the radio industry, a wave of mergers has placed the majority of radio stations into the hands of a few large corporations. During this time the number of independent radio stations shrank. Uniform corporate policies and market research-driven programming have reduced the variety of music on commercial radio. One critic summed up this approach as “play the fewest songs that appeal to the most people.” Also problematic is the requirement that record companies make big payments to promoters in order to get their songs on the radio. As a consequence it is harder than ever for new acts to be heard on commercial radio; only the biggest and best-financed acts get access to the commercial airwaves. Bill Wyman of the Rolling Stones recently said, “The Rolling Stones would never make it now.”»
BREEDING, Andy (2004), Internet Music Services, MA: Giant Path, pag 18
«Constant denial -- that's what's killing radio.
fonte: Jerry Del Colliano, Redfine Radio -- Don't Reinvent It 4/02/08
«The biggest hit has been taken by chart-led mainstream music. In part this reflects the generic decline of the chart from something central to mass audience judgements on popular music, to a smaller part of the overall music scene. The gradual decline in main-stream chart radio listening over the past 5 years has accelerated: from 40% of commercial listening at the start of the decade, to 30% and still falling. Some interesting parallels with main-stream, mass audience television; but unlike mass television there are no rising power ratios to sustain the value of radio advertising.» Stephen A Carter (Chief Executive, Ofcom), The Radio Festival - Certainty or Security? The Path to Digital 04|07|05
«Owing to numerous media alternatives available, overall time spent listening (TSL) has slipped 13% between 1998 and 2006, but less than an hour in the four years from 2002 to 2006. The largest erosion since 1998 for men has been with 18-24s, with a decline of 17%; for women, the largest decline has been among Teens, whose TSL has decreased 23%. The least slippage in time spent listening among men during those eight years has been with 45-54s, losing less than 6%; among women, it is the 45-54 group, down 9%»
fonte: Radio Today 2007, Arbitron, pag 91
«A friend put together this list of key radio companies before yesterday's roller coaster ride on the Dow. Look how well they have built shareholder value for their investors.
fonte: «Radio's "Recession" Started A Long Time Ago», Jerry Del Coliano, 23/01/08
«A pesar de las aciagas predicciones de la segunda mitad de los años noventa, la radio está de regreso y, en muchas maneras, mas fuerte que nunca. Las ganancias están aumentando y la audiencia es constante. A medida que avanza un nuevo siglo vemos también como las fortalezas tradicionales de la radio siguen realzando el atractivo del medio. Ahora también es posible acceder, por medio de un teléfono celular, a estaciones de radio por Internet» (Hausman, Benoit e O'Donnell, 2001: 351)
«Why is the Emmis CEO so optimistic? “While I know everybody is beating up on radio — I think 2008 really has a chance to be a better year.” Beyond the view from the bottom — it can’t get any worse — Smulyan says some Emmis sales operations are in “better shape than they’ve been in awhile.” For now, the news isn’t good. Revenues were down 7% last quarter. That made Smulyan’s optimism a tough sell on Wall Street. Emmis stock was down 9% last night in after-hours trading»
Continua a haver quem pense que basta olhar para o passado para a rádio sobreviver, que a rádio se reinventará por si própria. Como?
«Acontece, porém, que este meio sempre soube reinventar-se e ultrapassar todas as crises, atraindo novas gerações de ouvintes. A rádio serviu regimes ditatoriais e foi também a via usada para iniciar revoluções. Foi amadora e formou profissionais. Foi pirata e impôs novas frequências. Foi defensora do culto do programa de autor e apostou nos ouvintes segmentados. Foi um meio de comunicação unidireccional, bidireccional e agora é interactivo. Alguém tem dúvidas de que a rádio é um meio fascinante cheio de futuro?» (Rui Camarinha, Briefing, 19/10/07).
Vale a pena citar Mark Ramsey: «the absurdity of relating the present state of the radio (yes, radio) industry to any time in its ancient history. For example, the birth of FM back in the late 60's to 70's lived in a technological environment which this chart clearly shows has completely disappeared»
«Beaten down by the market for yet another year, radio companies appear poised to face more of the same in 2008, with projections typically calling for minuscule to nonexistent growth in advertising revenue and increased competition for listeners as a foregone conclusion.The current year certainly looks poised to go down as another difficult period for the industry, with total advertising revenue down 2% year over year through three quarters, according to figures released by the Radio Advertising Bureau Dec. 3, data that also showed revenue figures sagging further in the latter portion of the year, with third-quarter revenue down 5% year over year. (...) Wachovia Equity analyst Marci Ryvicker, for instance, recently said she now views radio as a "no growth medium" and puts zero percent growth as a likely, and potentially a "best case scenario" for 2008. (...) Ryvicker noted three major trends that will conspire to hold radio revenues down in 2008 and beyond: the flight of ad dollars to new media, the generally depressed state of the economy and a slowdown in overall ad expenditures.»
«The erosion we're currently seeing in radio usage - especially among the young - is not a hiccup. It is part of a long-term trend we are only beginning to experience. The more we face competitive alternatives which substitute for radio's core benefits, the more this trend will accelerate»
... diz o presidente do grupo Emmis, Jeff Smulyan: "We have to re-invent this medium."
«Wall Street uses the “R” word.
It's bracing for a local advertising slowdown. “Local advertising appears to be in the midst of recessionary trends” says Bank of America's Jonathan Jacoby, who believes that’s putting more pressure on an already weak marketplace. But it’s not just radio. All local media will be hit, says Wachovia's Marci Ryvicker, downgrading her radio, TV and outdoor estimates. She bases her read on economic and advertising woes, which she believes are “no longer temporary.”»
«Dan Mason: “Radio is reinventing itself as a reach medium.”
After sitting out of the public debate over Arbitron’s People Meter rollout, CBS Radio CEO Dan Mason is going on the record with research-fueled reasoning backing electronic measurement. He says “Our commitment is to lead the radio industry in proving the value and power of local radio and also proving the value of radio reach.” »
Eu tenho! «Meio fascinante» e «oásis»????
A frase é de Rui Camarinha, no Briefing: «A rádio em Portugal está a atravessar o deserto mas já tem o oásis à frente. Será miragem? Os números indicam que há uma série de estações de qualidade com fraca audiência e outras tantas que não se percebe por que são tão ouvidas. A verdade é que a rádio no seu todo perde ouvintes, tem menor notoriedade e regista pouco potencial para atrair investimento publicitário, pelo menos quando comparado com outros meios de comunicação, como a televisão e, principalmente, a internet. Numa frase, a rádio deixou de ser sexy.»
É um estudo inovador, realizado por Mark Ramsey e apresentado no recente NAB Barcelona (realizado com base nos resultados do PPM).
Mark mostra que no momento em que o microfone se abre aumentam as probabilidades dos ouvintes desligarem:
«Listeners are almost 4x more likely to tune away from WBEN during an open mic than during a song» (imagem 79)
O que fazer? «Actions... • An open mic is a privilege, not a right; • Get to the point • Use that time wisely • Keep it tight • Plan, don’t Spam» (imagem 80); ou seja a solução não é calar os dj's/animadores
(tambem pode ser acedido a partir daqui)
«With the clock ticking toward a new year, Bear Stearns analyst Victor Miller projects radio will have another “challenging” year as revenues hold flat with “many forces on either side of the scale.” Miller says “Incredibly, one of the biggest positives for local radio in 2008 is that there will likely be fewer negatives.” On the plus side are more political dollars and increasing web revenues.»
fonte: «2008 Forecast: “The scale could tip either way.”», Inside Radio, 29/10/07
«Radio at the Edge 07 - understand the transition to digital, online, on air and on demand. New producers, new platforms, new income streams, new costs, little regulation. How does the UK compare worldwide? (...) Radio for the Facebook Generation
In a world where social networking is all the rage, where does radio fit in? How can broadcasters and producers help manufacturers develop new products, and help listeners discover new programmes, new music and new stations? (...) In the days before digital, radio broadcasters had FM and AM and that was just about it. Today these platforms have been joined by DAB, online, WiFi, satellite, mobile and digital TV as routes to the audiences. New platforms are emerging all the time. But does the cost of being on multiple platforms justify the returns? Why are some of the UK’s biggest operators reducing investment in some new platforms? How can increasingly cash-strapped broadcasters justify an interest in all of them?»
«Over the last several months firms have either reassigned or fired their analysts covering radio. A year ago 24 analysts were assigned to radio. Now, only a dozen cover the industry. Just as stocks have sunk to multi-year lows and their worth has been reduced, some of radio’s biggest companies are going private. Deutsche Bank’s Drew Marcus says radio’s trading value “has dried up” and “that’s decreased the need for analysts.”»
fonte: «Radio is falling off Wall Street’s radar. Inside Radio, 15/10/07
«"Obviously, in the battles that we face, individually, we are not in a life-or-death situation," Rehr said. "But from this story, we can gain inspiration and remember the fighting spirit of our forefathers. Yes, we will ask more from you. Yes, we will expect more from you. Yes, you will expect more from others in radio. But standing together, aggressively facing the future, we will bring a great victory to this great industry. Remember: Victory or death."», NAB President/CEO David Rehr.
«O meu maior receio é que a nossa indústria [da rádio] venha a ser uma vítima do seu próprio sucesso» (Mark Ramsey)
«(...) my greatest fear is that our industry will be a victim of its own success, its own hardened arteries and calcified ligaments» (Ramsey, 2005: 85)
Há, pelo menos relativamente aos jornais, quem pense que não (que caíriam de qualquer forma):
«The dark truth for newspapers is that their sales would be in serious decline even if Tim Berners-lee had never invented the internet and Metro was still an idea on the whiteboard. As the Telegraph website's Burton says: "No one has shown me evidence that the internet is making us lose print sales." And those newspapers that enthusiastically embraced free web content early on, such as The Guardian, find their combined web and print circulations in a healthier position than had they continued only to force-feed readers with slabs of Times New Roman. The Guardian's circulation would have fallen far further if it hadn't built up brand loyalty among students with its cluster of excellent sites» (Rob Blackhurst , The freeloading generation, British Journalism Review, Vol. 16, No. 3, 57 (2005))
«If there is something that characterizes the evryday relationship with the radio it is taht nobody sits down to listen to it, and many times, people do not pay attention to the broadcast (...). The distracted way of relating to the radio, manifested in the attitude of 'listening without listening' or keeping the radio on as 'background music', constitues a cyclic mechanism of withdrawal-connection that characterizes communication practices in domestic sphere» (Winocur, 2005: 323)
Do relátório da eMarketeer Radio Trends:
«What's hurting traditional radio is its declining share of the media pie, in terms of time spent with media. Folks are listening to less radio as they spend more time on the web. As Macklin puts it in his report, “Traditional radio is losing its significance in people’s lives.". Yet radio still has a huge share, with a weekly cumulative audience of 282.8 million in the U.S., according to data from Bridge Ratings, and in fact some 90 percent of Americans still tune in to traditional radio each week. Further, radio is going through a whole set of changes that promise to widen its appeal, and many of those changes are occurring online. Indeed, Macklin believes that the key drivers in radio's future as an advertising medium will be station web sites and streaming internet audio. The number of traditional radio listeners is expected to remain relatively stable, at 274 million in 2015, but other areas are expected to grow rapidly. The audience for internet radio--simulcasts of traditional radio stations online and internet-only stations--is expected to grow from 72.0 million in 2007 to 187.3 million in 2015, according to Bridge Ratings» (fonte: «Brighter future for radio, despite it all, Media Life Magazine, Sep 5, 2007)
«"I've been in the radio biz for over 35 years -- radio was supposed to be dead by now," he [Edward C. Kiernan, general manager of Baltimore's top-rated talk-radio station WBAL, 1090 AM, and its FM counterpart, WIYY, known as 98 Rock] said, ascribing its supposed demise to the advent of television, to the fact that cigarette advertising was removed from the airwaves, to record players, cassette tape recorders, eight-track tapes and, more recently, compact discs. If none of these things killed radio, he suggested, then iPods and satellite radio won't either.» E a Internet?
fonte: MADIGAN, Nick, «Radio may survive this, too», Baltimore Sun, August 26, 2007
«(...) last ten years have been a period of rapid growth of the Internet and mobile communications, which has challenged not only the traditional ideas of radio broadcasting and audio delivery, but also those unique, new extensions for radio broadcasting which DAB was able to promise. Lately, the Internet and mobile phone networks have provided a basis for new nonbroadcast or hybrid audio services (e.g. Podcasting, Visual Radio)» (Ala-Fossi. 2005: 2)
«Hybrid systems are discussed here only very briefly. Visual Radio is Nokia’s architectural innovation, which combines traditional analog FM radio and synchronized visual GPRS data delivery via GSM network (Hedges 2005c). Motorola’s iRadio is another architectural innovation, which makes it possible to listen Internet radio recordings from mobile phone memory via car or home stereo (Klein 2005). In addition, there are some software innovations which aim at bringing podcasting services directly into mobile phones through wireless mobile networks. While Melodeo counts on downloading podcasts from the Internet directly to the phone memory, Pod2Mob software will instead stream the selected podcasts to an applet on the users cell phone (Melodeo 2005, Pod2Mob 2005)» (Ala-Fossi, 2005: 19)
«Os problemas na indústria da música não se limitam às vendas de CD. As rádios rock, que foram durante muito tempo o veículo de marketing preferido pelas editoras, estão a sofrer os mesmos dissabores. Em 1993, os norte-americanos passavam uma média de 23 horas e 15 minutos por semana com a rádio ligada. Na Primavera de 2004, esse número tinha descido para 19 horas e 45 minutos. As audiências de rádio estão agora no mínimo dos últimos 27 anos e é a programação de música rock que parece estar a sofrer mais. (...)
Os especialistas continuam a não chegar a acordo quanto ao principal motivo, mas eis os principais candidatos:
.O aparecimento do fenómeno do iPod: Com um rádio personalizado, quem precisa de banda FM?
.O telemóvel: Os condutores a caminho do trabalho ou de casa, presos no trânsito, eram a salvação da rádio nos anos 80. Actualmente, continuamos a ficar presos nos engarrafamentos, mas optamos por falar ao telefone.
. A Lei das Telecomunicações de 1996 (EUA): Ao acrescentar mil estações de banda FM ao sinal de áudio, esta legislação aumentou a concorrência e provocou estragos no modelo de negócio dos incumbentes. A lei também flexibilizou os limites de propriedade em cada mercado, levando à...
.Clear Channel: Frequentemente acusada dos dissabores da rádio, esta gigante dos media é tanto um sintoma da feroz economia desta indústria quanto uma causa. Uma vez que a Lei das Telecomunicações nos EUA enfraqueceu o negócio das rádios locais em finais da década de 90, a Clear Channel podia ir comprando as estações em dificuldades. A empresa é actualmente proprietária de mais de 1.200 dessas estações, o que corresponde a uma em cada dez. (...)
.A punição da obscenidade pela Comissão Federal de Comunicações (FCC): Sempre fez parte das suas funções policiar aquilo que era dito nas emissões de rádio e televisão, mas a FCC raramente exerceu o seu dever com tanto vigor como nos últimos cinco anos. O principal alvo foi Howard Stern, uma personalidade "terra-a-terra" da rádio com tendência para o obsceno. Depois de incorrer em coimas sem precedentes, Stern acabou por desistir das emissões da rádio terrestrce. No final de 2005, transitou para a rádio por satélite Sirius, onde se estreou - praticamente sem censura - para uma audiência de assinantes em Janeiro de 2006. (...)» (Anderson, 2007: 37/38)
« (...) In Canada, the Canadian Association of Broadcasters and the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission are seeking smart ways to work with new media. The CAB…
(da edição de hoje da newsletter Inside Radio, reservada a assinantes):
«Radio's declining time spent listening is just the tip of the iceberg. Consumer media usage declined last year following two consecutive years of decelerating growth. Veronis Suhler Stevenson says the drop is because of changing consumer behaviors and digital media efficiencies which require less time investment»
fonte: «Media usage dips for the first time in a decade», Inside Radio, 14/08/07
«For the first time since 1997, consumers spent less time with media in 2006 than they did the previous year, as media usage per person declined 0.5% to 3,530 hours, due to changing consumer behaviors and digital media efficiencies, according to the VSS Forecast. The drop in consumer media usage was driven by the continued migration of consumers to digital alternatives for news, information and entertainment, which require less time investment than their traditional media counterparts. For example, consumers typically watch broadcast or cable television at least 30 minutes per session while they spend as little as five to seven minutes viewing consumer-generated video clips online. VSS expects consumer media usage to stabilize in 2007 and increase slightly through 2011, as out-of-home media and videogames will be the only major segments to achieve accelerating growth in the forecast period compared with the 2001-2006 timeframe. Overall consumer time spent with media will increase at a CAGR of 0.5% from 2006 to 2011, compared with 0.8% in the previous five-year period. The VSS Forecast is the only source to track, analyze and forecast spending, usage and trends in all 19 segments and more than 100 sub-segments of the U.S. media industry. The VSS Forecast also features the industry’s most accurate spending forecasts, producing a margin of error of +/- 2% for 9 of the last 10 years. The margin of error for the 2006 forecasts was + 0.4%. In addition to shifting their attention to alternative media, consumers are also migrating away from advertising-supported media, such as broadcast TV and newspapers, to consumer-supported platforms, such as cable TV and videogames. Time spent with consumer-supported media grew at a CAGR of 19.8 percent from 2001 to 2006, while time spent with ad-supported media declined 6.3 percent in the period» (fonte: «New VSS Forecast Released», VSS, 7/08/07)
«Radio listening continues to decline. From the fall of 1998 to the fall of 2006, Arbitron found that the average number of listeners per quarter hour fell 6.6%, from about 19.7 million to about 18.4 million, according to the study, which updates a previous radio review done in 2002»
«(...) from de Fall of 1998 to the Fall of 2006, Arbitron reports that the average number of listeners per quarter hour has fallen from approximately 19.7 million to approximately 18.4 million, a drop of 6.6 percent. (...) while listenership declined slightly between the fall of 1998 and the fall of 2000, listener ratings held steady between the summer of 2000 and the early portion of 2005. During 2005, radio listenership appears to have taken another substantial dip. Between fall 1998 and fall 2006 the average annual decline in the average num 0.82 percent. Further analysis, which is beyond the scope of this report, is required to explain whether these changes in radio audience and industry concentration reflect any causal links. The causes of audience decline and industry consolidation may be varied. For example, declining audiences could be related to the availability of alternative products, such as satellite radio, Internet radio, and downloading of digital music»
São os sinais contraditórios do tempo de mudança:
«Canadians are spending less time listening to radio, but the number of stations across the country is rising. As broadcasters chase advertising dollars in robust consumer markets such as Alberta, 29 more radio stations sprang up last year, bringing the total to 1,252, as dozens of new operating licences were awarded. The growth came as Canadians spent an average of 18.6 hours a week listening to the radio in 2006, a drop of half an hour from 2005, according to annual statistics reported by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. Average weekly listening time - which includes mornings, at work and while driving, the three points of the day when most people tune in - has fallen substantially from eight years ago, when Canadians averaged 20.5 hours of radio a week, the regulator said. "Since 1999, the overall per capita weekly radio listening levels decreased by almost two hours," the regulator said.
fonte: «Time with radio on the decline», Report on Business.com GRANT ROBERTSON, August 1, 2007
«As rádios portuguesas perderam cerca de 100 mil ouvintes no segundo trimestre deste ano face ao mesmo período do ano passado, tendo a Comercial, a Cidade FM e o Rádio Clube sofrido as maiores quedas. Entre Abril e Junho deste ano, o consumo de rádio rondou uma média de 4,5 milhöes de ouvintes, contra os 4,6 milhöes registados nos mesmos meses de 2006, de acordo com dados hoje divulgados pela Marktest no Bareme-Rádio trimestral.»
fonte: «Rádio: Emissoras perdem 100 mil ouvintes no 2º semestre, Comercial, Cidade», LUSA,09-07-2007
Isto até pode ser verdade («o recente estudo da Havas Media que coloca a rádio como o segundo meio mais consumido em Portugal, o segundo com a maior frequência de utilização e o terceiro em tempo dedicado pelos consumidores» Newsletter da MCR, Carlos Marques, Julho07) mas isto é apenas um sintoma do passado - a questão é como aproveitar esta realidade para dar a volta, mudando tudo ou quase tudo na rádio, em vez de ficar a lamentar a erosão que já começou, ainda que de uma forma lenta
(The following was contributed by piano-driven Americana artist Dave Turner of Asheville, NC.): «Traditional radio and satellite radio are losing marketshare to innovative services responding to market demand such as Pandora, which I subscribe to for per year. Pandora allows me to create radio stations based on their music genome project, which takes traits of music by certain artists and finds other artists with those traits. So, if I create the Elton John channel, it finds other artists appealing to Elton John fans. I create several channels named for my favorite artists, set the player to mix and it plays music I like all day with no commercials, and it introduces me to new artists and provides links for me to buy their music. (Now there’s money that really IS going to the artist in CD sales AND trackable listens.) Here’s the kicker: because of these kind of services, I NEVER listen to the radio except when I’m in my car, and then I only listen to public radio. I think that the big-monied traditional and satellite media companies would like to see internet radio stamped out. »
«El periodista y presentador de Noticias Cuatro Iñaki Gabilondo lamentó la "total pérdida de credibilidad" de la radio en España como consecuencia de un proceso de "enconamiento político" y de las "tertulias espectáculo" que han provocado "lo peor que le podía pasar a las radios", que han quedado "etiquetadas y marcadas políticamente". Gabilondo aseguró que la radio "es incapaz de gestionar la complejidad" del mundo. (...) "Para nunca más volver a la radio, porque no hay futuro, sólo hay pasado", dijo antes de repasar la historia reciente de la radio y los cambios ocurridos de la implantación de la democracia en España y la llegada de las tertulias radiofónicas. "Se lo debemos al gran olfato de Luis del Olmo, que venía de la radio espectáculo, de la tradición de los programas matinales, y hasta que él lo hizo, era inconcebible escuchar una entrevista a un líder sindical por la mañana", explicó.»
fonte: «Gabilondo: "La radio ha perdido la credibilidad por enconamiento político"», Madridpress.com, 28/06/07
«"A rádio vai morrer muito em breve e só a publicidade é que decidirá por quanto tempo é que ela se mantém". O vaticínio, pessimista, foi assumido quarta-feira ao final da tarde pelo jornalista Luís Filipe Costa durante um seminário na Sociedade Portuguesa de Autores sobre a sobrevivência da rádio, onde estiveram ainda presentes responsáveis como Luis Osório, Luís Montez e António Sala.
fonte: «"A rádio vai morrer muito em breve"», INÊS DAVID BASTOS, DN, 22/06/07
«Let's face it -- radio stinks. It's 40 minutes of commercials, 10 minutes of annoying DJs looking to offend, and maybe 10 minutes of music. And in that 10 minutes, you're bound to hear the same five artists multiple times, and the music will generally be the most inoffensive pablum imaginable. DJs are corrupted by payola and stations are driven by the profit motive to turn as much time over to advertising as possible. This sorry state of affairs comes just as listeners have a broad array of new options -- satellite broadcasting, the iPod-driven culture of user-created playlists, and Internet radio stations like Pandora and Last.FM, raising real doubts about whether broadcast radio will be able to pull out of its slump and find its creative spark. (...)»
fonte: «Notes From The Future Of Radio», Martin H. Bosworth, ConsumerAffairs.Com, 15/06/07
«Radio is at an exciting point in its history. Total listening in the UK reached a record high of 45 million listeners in the final quarter of 2006, with 90% of the population tuned-in every week. At the same time, the number of households which have DAB reached 16% (up 44% on the previous year), while listening via other platforms is also increasing. Listener choice has increased considerably as new stations, offering new Formats, have been launched over the past few years by both commercial radio (e.g. rock, jazz, chill-out, speech) and the BBC.» (The Future of Radio, Ofcom, 17/04/07)
«“The conventional thinking over the past couple of years has been that new technologies were going to overpower radio and threaten its relevance to the American consumer,” said AMS President/CEO Ed Seeger. “Well, we’ve heard all that before. Radio was going to become obsolete when television came along, and then when the eight-track cassette was installed in cars, and, most recently, when the computer revolution began. It didn’t happen, and it isn’t happening now.”»
Baseado nestes numeros: «According to the AMS study results, 64 percent of those surveyed said they listen to the radio every day, while 69 percent say they listen more or the same amount as five years ago. Also, 84 percent said they expect that in five years, they will continue to listen more or about the same amount as they currently do. Additionally, 64 percent described radio as important to their everyday lives, with 84 percent describing radio as important to American life in general. In an AMS study from April of last year, only 36 percent of those surveyed had listened to Internet radio. One year later, 67 percent have listened to radio online, with 47 percent saying they anticipate listening to Internet radio in the future. Only six percent of respondents said they had listened to radio via a cell phone though.»
fonte: «FMQB, «AMS Study Finds Radio Still Going Strong», 5/04/07
«The radio is a magnificent invention. It transports information and music in a manner that my English major mind cannot even grasp-for free. Radio was hilarious and endearing as voiced by Jon Lovitz in the Brave Little Toaster. We should all love the radio.
fonte: «Boycott your radio», Jess McCauley '07, 03/29/07
«A recent FCC analysis of satellite competition determined that the relevant market for satellite radio consists solely of Sirius and XM. The agency relied on antitrust law and the Department of Justice merger guidelines in finding that other audio services such as terrestrial radio (including HD Radio), iPods, and Internet radio are not competitive substitutes. Sirius and XM have tried to justify their proposed merger based on competition from iPods, HD Radio and other forms of audio entertainment. "The reality is that satellite radio competes with an awful lot of audio services -- terrestrial radio, Internet radio, with cell phones when hooked up to Bluetooth, and we compete with MP3 players," said Sirius CEO Mel Karmazin testifying before the Senate Judiciary's Subcommittee on Antitrust Competition last week. "This FCC decision that the current duopoly of XM and Sirius do not compete with radio, iPods or any other audio sources in the satellite radio market further undermines the arguments made by XM and Sirius to obtain a government-sanctioned monopoly," said NAB President/CEO David K. Rehr. "While the FCC clearly intends to examine all issues surrounding the XM/Sirius merger, the hurdle the parties must overcome to convince the FCC to change direction is very high."»
fonte: «FCC: Sirius, XM Do Not Compete with Terrestrial Radio », 30/03/07, Radio Online
«The use of iPods, portable podcasting, satellite signals, digital HD radio, Internet streaming, and even phones as music-listening devices all grew. There were further signs that the new technologies were beginning to have an impact on traditional radio, from audience behavior and economics to transforming the ownership and strategy of the industry and altering the projections for the future. For now, the size of traditional radio’s audience remains fairly stable. But the amount of time people spend with it is beginning to ebb. (...) The only notion that seems clear is that the first major new communication technology of the 20th century — radio — is changing rapidly and appears likely to survive the early years of the21 st. The form or forms the medium will take, however, are still shifting.»
«Historically, commercial radio programming is safe, inoffensive and mass market to maintain advertisers and to build and maintain the largest possible audience. To programmers this is consistency, whereas to audiences it is predictability. MacFarland [MacFarland, D.T. (1997) Future Radio Programming Strategies. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates] describes this philosophy as the McDonaldization of radio with predictability and familiarity being guiding factors in programming strategy. It could be argued (and evidence of student listening bears this out) that it is predictability in commercial radio that has created the fall in listening by the ‘wirefree’ generation and the movement of audiences (in the UK) from commercial radio to BBC
national radio or to streaming web stations and Podcasts» (Berry, 149)
A culpa é (também) da programação:
«If radio serves to meet basic human needs at a variety of different levels [«All five of Maslow’s basic human needs can be fulfilled through the act of radio listening, the level of need being dependent upon the individual’s hierarchical position at any given moment in time. Radio meets physiological, safety, belongingness and love, esteem and self-actualization needs in a variety of different ways and listeners can engage fulfilment simply by selecting the format type that meets their requirements at any specified period of time»], then it is important that radio provides the necessary variety of programming to fulfil the needs of all listeners.» (Radio Listening as a Function of Basic Human Need: Why Did Maslow Listen To Radio? By Morris W. Shanahan1 , New Zealand Broadcasting School, and Nicholas Brown, The Radio Network, New Zealand , 2002)
«McDonaldization of radio» será uma derivação da expressão McJob, sinónimo de trabalho sem qualificação na indústria do fast food, popularizada no livro «Generation X» de Douglas Coupland, de 1991.
«Radio, and latter television, was a more tightly controlled medium than was the printed press» (Benkler, 2006: 190)
«Exasperated listeners weary of hearing the same songs over and over on the radio may have something to cheer about: a pair of innovative deals that could shake up the music playlists of some of the nation's largest radio-station chains.
fonte: «Stations To Pay .5M In FCC Settlement» Billboard.Biz, March 05, 2007, By Associated Press
O guru Al Ries acha que «Radio is a powerful medium with great selectivity at relatively low costs, but Radiado threatens the very existence of the medium. Too much is too much»: O problema, diz, é que a rádio tem excesso de publicidade. Por isso diz que «For every ad that radio stations used to run, it now seems like they run two. Radio, in my opinion, has become Radiado, an extra "ad" inserted at every possible point in the programming». E no seu dia a dia, «My favorite radio personality is Neal Boortz, a nationally syndicated talk-show host who broadcasts out of Atlanta on 171 stations. I listen to Boortz every morning during the commute to my office in Roswell. Yet at the top of the hour, I turn off my radio and don't turn it back on until 8 minutes after the hour. Why? Because that's radio's black hole. Eight solid minutes of commercials, traffic, weather, news and more commercials. The second black hole occurs at the bottom of the hour, but it's not quite as bad. I turn off my radio for only 6 minutes». Por isso conclui que «The biggest health problem in America today is obesity. The biggest advertising problem in America today is obesity, too»
fonte: «How Radio Is Becoming RadiADo», AL Ries, Advertising Age, 4/03/07
Mark Ramsey já comentou: «(...) ask the deeper question: If radio featured significantly less advertising, would that keep listeners away from their CD's and iPods and satellite radios and TV's and video games? Indeed, would that make the radio industry a healthier one? Less is not more unless less is zero. Then less is called "subscription."»
«“Is fragmentation occurring? Sure it is. But it’s always occurred for radio. You (reporter covering the call) write about the iPod. Ten years ago your predecessor was writing about CDs and 20 years before that his predecessor was writing about 8-Tracks. It’s always something.», Cox Radio President/CEO Bob Neil in «Cox's Neil: I'll Take Radio», radio Ink, 1/03/07
«Conventional radio stations are losing their grip on the iPod generation as younger listeners shift to new technology, such as MP3 players, satellite radio and the emerging world of music-playing cellphones, the industry is warning Ottawa.In a lengthy document submitted to the federal broadcast regulator yesterday, the industry paints a bleak picture for itself as new technology permeates its market, eroding audiences and eating away at advertising revenue.Falling listenership among teenagers has become a particular concern for the industry, the Canadian Association of Broadcasters (CAB) said in its submission to a sweeping review of the sector being conducted in Ottawa."It is generally agreed that teens have abandoned conventional radio in favour of other audio platforms including peer-to-peer file sharing, music downloading and iPods," says the CAB, which represents Canada's radio companies."The key question this raises is whether today's teens can ever be repatriated to conventional radio." (...) Industry data on declining radio audiences are among the most surprising figures contained in the document. Under the group's worst-case scenario, listenership could fall 16.1 per cent over the next 10 years, causing a 14.5-per-cent drop in advertising revenue. The sector's most optimistic view predicts a 9.6-per-cent drop in listeners during that time, resulting in a 4.8-per-cent decline in revenue.If the industry saw a decline of that proportion last year, it would have cost 8.5-million in advertising revenue, the CAB said. (...) "We are facing an unprecedented level of competition." Mr. Goldstein said in an interview, adding that CHUM is very conscious of the industry's technological changes. He said achieving "regulatory certainty" from the CRTC is more important. Several broadcasters are concerned that rivals, such as satellite radio, are not bound by the same regulations as conventional radio.The CAB says the fastest erosion of conventional radio listenership is coming in the 12-17 age demographic. (...)(«Radio feels heat from iPod generation», Globe and Mail, SIMON TUCK, GRANT ROBERTSON, March 16, 2006)
«weekly cume for traditional radio will slide from 94% of the U.S. population in 2007 to 77% by 2020»
«Bridge Ratings also predicts that weekly cume for traditional radio will slide from 94% of the U.S. population in 2007 to 77% by 2020.
Though that's a huge drop, this estimate is up somewhat from Bridge's previous quarterly projection.
"These new estimates are based on interviews with current listeners of traditional radio (AM/FM). Their overall perception of the medium and their outlook for future use improved during this quarter's interviews," President Dave Van Dyke stated.»
fonte: «... And a Tweak Up for Terrestrial », Radio world, 26/01/07
Corey Deitz acha que sim, a propósito do anúncio da venda de uma parte significativa das estãções da Clear Channel:
«With competing technologies like Internet radio, Satellite Radio, audio content on cell phones, Podcasting, and WiMax, the value of old media AM and FM radio stations continues to fall»
fonte: «Top 10 Radio Stories of 2006», RadioAbout, 25/12/06
Partilho com os leitores esta experiência notável:
Ontem uma das minhas séries de televisão favoritas, Cold Case (Casos Arquivados), terminava com uma versão espantosa da música «Somewhere over the rainbow».
Hoje de manhã foi ao Google e conciliei o nome da série e o da música e cheguei lá. Um artista do Haway, já falecido, com um nome impronunciável (Israel "IZ" Kamakawiwo'ole). Como na Amazon não vendem tema a tema, copiei o nome para o iTunes e comprei a música por 0,99$. Mais: fiquei a saber que é a versão mais vendida do «Somewhere over the rainbow); Aqui podem ouvir uma amostra do tema (de borla, claro).
Penso que é mais um caso que demonstra que a rádio musical - se não se posicionar como alternativa digital - ficará obsoleta. Viva a globalização, já agora!
«LOS ANGELES, Dec 13 (Reuters) - A music industry watchdog group released a report on Wednesday saying that radio ownership consolidation has harmed the listening public. The report, released by The Future of Music Coalition, said radio consolidation at the national and local levels has led to fewer choices in radio programming and harmed the listening public and those working in the music and media industries, including DJs, programmers and musicians. Station ownership by radio giants like Clear Channel Communications Inc. (CCU.N: Quote, Profile , Research), the leading U.S. operator, increased significantly with the passage of the 1996 Telecommunications Act, which eliminated the national radio ownership cap and revised limits on how many stations a company can own in a local market. In a statement, Peter DiCola, FMC research director, said the Telecommunications Act has backfired in terms of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission's goals of increasing competition, localism, and diversity in radio. The report said the top four radio station owners have almost half of the listeners and the top 10 owners have almost two-thirds of listeners. The report also said the "localness" of radio ownership, or ownership by individuals living in the community, has declined between 1975 and 2005 by almost a third. The report said that across 155 markets, radio listenership has declined over the past 14 years, a 22 percent drop since its peak in 1989.»
fonte: «Watchdog says US public hurt by radio consolidation», 13/12/06, reuters
«The web will top outdoor advertising in 2007 — with radio its next target. ZenithOptimedia Worldwide CEO Steve King says radio will see its share of the ad pie fall from 8.6% this year to 8% in 2008 while Internet spending grows at a phenomenal 28%. Meanwhile there’s some good news for radio - Meanwhile there’s some good news for radio - read it in today's»
fonte: Inside Radio, 5/12/06
Lembra Mark Ramsey: «Every radio station has an on-ramp to the Internet and the advertising revenue it can provide. What's more, radio has millions of ears that are likewise connected to millions of Internet connections»
E diz a Business Week: «The radio industry won't want to hear this. Advertising dollars are shifting online faster than analysts anticipated. In fact, advertisers will soon spend as much money on the Internet as they do on the airwaves, according to a newly released eMarketer study. On Dec. 6, the New York research firm increased its estimate for 2006 online advertising spending by 0 million, to .4 billion. The new estimate means online advertising will pull in about 5.8% of the more than 1 billion advertisers are expected to spend this year. That's less than radio's 6.9%, according to Universal McCann (IPG), which tracks the radio industry. However, radio's share is declining while online share is growing, says David Hallerman, a senior analyst at eMarketer. By 2007, online advertising will bring in 6.8% of the total and, by 2008, it will bring in 8.1%—putting it well over radio. By some estimates, online ad spending will overtake radio even sooner. Forrester Research (FORR) anticipates online advertising will bring in .4 billion this year—that's a billion more than eMarketer's estimate and would be roughly 6.2% of the total, putting online advertising much closer to overtaking radio.» («Advertising Goes Off the Radio», 7/12/06, Business Week.com)
«(...) Of course any blanket statement is pretty useless today, especially when referencing music. Eighteen-year-olds are wired into the MySpace world; 40-plus Luddites are clueless about downloading; music freaks of any age will go anywhere the music is offered and there are traditionalists who continue to hear music on radio and buy CDs at the big box stores. And that’s an overgeneralization, with the point being that there are 300 million-plus North Americans and any blanket statements are, in my opinion, far too general in 2006.
Lee Abrams, «iPods Are Killing Radio!?», RWonline, 22/11/06
«The FCC has updated its tally. As of Sept. 30 there were 4,751 AMs, 6,252 commercial FMs and 2,790 educational FMs for a total of 13,793 radio stations. That compares to June 30 totals of 4,744 AMs, 6,238 commercial FMs and 2,760 educational FMs for a total of 13,742 stations. There are 746 LPFMs; there were 721 at last count. The FCC also says there are 4,087 FM translators and boosters. That compares to 4,026 as of June 30.»
fonte: RWOnline, «FCC: 13,742 Total Licensed Radio Stations in U.S.», 22/11/06
«’Année Radio 2005-2006 confirme une nouvelle fois la puissance du média Radio : plus de 8 personnes sur 10 (82,8%) âgées de 13 ans et plus écoutent la Radio, sur un jour moyen de semaine, près de 3 heures (2h54 min).
fonte: «Bilan annuel de la Radio et nouveaux modes d’écoute», 10/11/06, Mediametrie, Communique de presse
a partir do artigo «Changing Its Tune; Broadcast Radio Is Scrambling To Regain Its Groove» do New York Times, Richard Siklos, 15/9/06, traduzido pelo Courrier Internacional, versão portuguesa (outubro06)
- cada vez mais gente abandona as rádios de música para ouvir sites de musica; copiam essas musicas e gravam-nas em CD ou copiam-nas para o iPod;
- a rádio tradicional é ameaçada pelo streaming audio, o podcasting, os leitores de mp3 ou ainda a rádio por satélite,
- «O futuro da rádio parece cada vez mais incerto desde o fim da década de 90, período em que os industriais se atropelavam para comprar estações emissoras. Hoje, as receitas das rádios estão estagnadas e o número de ouvintes em queda. O tempo que as pessoas dedicam à rádio durante a semana caiu 14 por cento nos últimos dez anos. E, de há três anos para cá a cotação das acções das cinco maiores empresas radiofónicas caiu entre 30 e 60 por cento»
- excesso de publicidade; satélite é solução (rádio via satélite tem cerca de 10 milhões de assinantes contra os 230
Em Portugal,os melhores anos da indústria discográfica musical (1985-1997, no estudo de José Soares Neves, estiveram associados ao fim do duopólio da rádio, [a]o surgimento das ‘rádios livres’ e sua posterior legalização (pág 14), e se a nível mundial também se verificou um crescimento, foi maior em Portugal;
- a industria musical portuguesa, à semelhança do que acontece globalmente, também vive uma situação de oligopólio (em 1997, seis companhias totalizavam 83,5% da facturação total, das quais apenas uma nacional, ainda que a posição das independentes se tenha vindo a reforçar, 159)
- a queda na venda dos singles, em Portugal, começou no início da década de 90 (Neves 103)
Em Portugal consumo de música e audição de rádio confundem-se. Neves destaca dois inquéritos à população, no âmbito da sociologia (feitos em meados da década de 90), que mostram que a rádio é o meio principal para escuta de música, sobretudo entre os mais jovens (é marginal o número daqueles que ouvem música sem ser através da rádio) (208)
- A rádio desempenha, juntamente com outros factores, a função de gatekeeper (na linha do pensamento de Paul D Lopes ou Ciane, citados por Neves), mas no processo de promoção/difusão das musicas não há apenas um gatekeeper. Neves fala num «processo em diversos patamares» (a decisão sobre a edição e a escolha dos temas; o acesso à promoção pública e a sua distribuição junto do consumidor final). «Destes três momentos-chave depende em grande parte a carreira que um dado título realiza. Com efeito, na actualidade, os principais problemas colocam-se não na fase da produção, mas da circulação, uma vez que, se aquela está relativamente facilitada, esta está crescentemente congestionada. Daí a importância da actividade de promoção e marketing, particularmente junto da rádio. E, deste ponto de vista, as majors possuem as melhores condições para a colocação dos seus produtos devida aos processos de trabalho utilizados e à extensão dos recursos materiais e humanos de que dispõem» (Neves, 142).
- A industria discográfica funciona em oligopólio, o que lhe dá muito mais força para, mais do que negociar, impor (Neves, 40). Mesmo assim há quem fale em «dependência mútua» na relação entre aestações de rádio e as companhias fonográficas, devida a interesses comuns (Neves, 41, citando Malm e Wallis), «uma integração envolvendo um grau crescente de dependência mútua, baseada mais em interesses comuns do que em relações de propriedade (Neves 73). «Dependência mútua porque, como notam os autores [Krister Malm, Roger Wallis, Big Sounds from Small Peoples, Londres, Constable, 1992], as estações emissoras necessitam de mais e mais música gravada para alimentar os seus programas, tal como a indústria necessita destes para publicitar os seus produtos (Neves, 73). Ainda assim, «a dependência mútua atrás referida deverá ser “cruzada» com a estratégia da indústria globalmente considerada [em especial das majors], a qual consiste em procurar vender o máximo de cópias do mínimo de produtos, o que, dada a expansão da rádio aos níveis local e mundial, permite concluir que o aumento do tempo de emissão se fez difundindo a mesma música» (Neves 74) Um exemplo é dado por Steve Chapple e Reebee Garofalo, ao analisarem as rádios de formato «Top40», conhecidas também por CHR: ao reduzirem o leque de músicas transmitidas e apostando insistentemente mais numas do que noutras (o Top 10), «a rádio integrou-se mais especificamente no tecido da indústria da música. Para que os discos tivessem um grande êxito teriam de ser tocados na rádio; e, com as execuções constantemente repetidas no Top 40, o êxito dos discos passou a ser feito à força» (Neves 74). Neves cita Frederic Dannen que escreveu sobre os “promotores independentes”, «cujo trabalho, situado entre os departamentos de promoção das companhias e os responsáveis radiofónicos pelas listas, consistia em conseguir que um dado título nelas entrasse, e aí permanecesse, como forma de conseguir construir um hit. A perspectiva era a de que as pessoas não compram música pop que nunca ouviram, sendo que, por cada single no Top 10, poderia ser vendido um milhão de álbuns» (Neves, 75). É a dependência/necessidade da entrada de um tema na lista do Top40 que leva a que surja o «payola», já conhecido desde os anos 60 nos EUA, data das primeiras investigações «em torno de eventuais pagamentos efectuados a disc jockeys no sentido de garantirem airplay para determinados temas (…)» (Neves 75). Por outo lado, até que ponto, campanhas de spots na rádio, promovendo artistas que também estarão a ser divulgados em airplay, não é uma forma de payola (ou pelo menos de cimentar boas relações)? Importa no entanto saber se as rádios que decidem o que passam (que escolhem, de uma lista de edições novas) ou se, na verdade, é a indústria que decide o que passa a rádio (através de estratégias de pressão e/ou sedução). Neves cita Baskerville, para quem os directores de programas ou autores das playlists, «aqueles que determinam o que as estações de rádio emitem são provavelmente os mais poderosos indivíduos na indústria musical. Eles são os gatekeepers. Aqueles que eles permitem, podem prosperar. Aqueles a quem são negados direitos de emissão, provavelmente nunca sairão da obscuridade no campo da música popular» (David Baskerville, op. Cit., p.365).
A conquista de airplay (numero de vezes que uma mesma musica passa numa determinada rádio) faz parte das estrategia de marketing; a antecipação de temas, em single, que inda não estão à venda, é parte dessa mesma estratégia (não é pelas receitas do single, a não ser em casos de grande sucesso) mas pelo airplay conquistado. Outras estratégias: a disponibilização de elementos de merchandising que, por exemplo, vão aparecer nos passatempos radiofónicos ou levar jornalistas ao estrangeiro, conseguindo tempo de antena para as suas reportagens, para ver concertos (entrevistas) de músicos que estão a ser promovidos;
- A construção de programas com tops é a representação máxima da relação passiva entre industria e rádio ( industria fornece os dados, a rádio ilustra)
- na década de 20, quando a rádio apareceu, a industria manifestou grande desconfiança, na medida em que receava que a audição gratuita levasse à quebra no consumo dos discos; rapidamente a industria apercebeu-se que os dois media (como lhes chama Neves, 72) se complementavam. Para este autor, «é um dos principais veículos de difusão musical e o principal suporte promocional da indústria» (73).
- A auto-edição, por oposição ao envolvimento/empenho da editora (feito mais oumenos em função das esperanças depositadas nas possibilidades; A auto-edição ganha força com a realidade digital, permitindo focalizar em nichos e potenciando aquilo que sempre foi uma estratégia das editoras, a «identificação entre consumidor e produto
O impacto do segundo choque não se reflecte apenas sobre a rádio e a rádio musical em concreto. A televisão é também vítima disso e- por causa das audiências medidas minuto a minuto – de uma forma mais dramática.
O fim do programa «Top of the Pops», a 30 de Julho de 2006, é disso um bom exemplo: transmitido ininterruptamente há 42 anos na BBC2 (1 de Janeiro de 1964, com Rolling Stones e Beatles), acabou devido às fracas audiências (de uma audiência mundial de 15 milhões de pessoas, na década de 70, pouco mais de um milhão assistiam nos últimos tempos ao programa (Madonna, Robie Williams e Rolling Stones)
A indústria musical parece rendida aos benefícios que a digitalização em curso irá provocar. Os Digital Music Awards (5ª edição em 2006) ainda estão no início, mas serão cada vez mais importante à medida que mais artistas usem a Internet ou os telemóveis para se promoverem, em vez da rádio ou da tv. Os prémios distinguem:
- as páginas oficiais dos músicos;
- as páginas de fãs e blogues;
- inovações na rede, como utilização do telemóvel ou podcasts ou lojas digitais de venda;
Do Observatoire de la radio 2004-2005, alguns dados interessantes sobre ascprincipais rádios musicais francesas:
A Nostalgie tem a play list mais extensa, com 585 temas; a Europe 2, a menor, com 199 canções. Outras rádios como a RTL2 (com cerca de 350) ou a funradio ou a NRJ situam-se à volta dos 250 temas.
Citações de um artigo do New York Times:
«The radio industry keeps losing people like Danny C. Costa, a senior at Boston University who grew up listening to radio in New York and New Jersey. For the last few years, Mr. Costa has tuned out radio in favor of Web sites where he can get access to downloads or videos he heard about from friends. He prefers these to the drumbeat of the Top 40. He burns his favorite songs onto CD’s or copies them onto his iPod. “I just sort of stopped listening to radio, because I had access to all this music online,” Mr. Costa said. While more than 9 out of 10 Americans still listen to traditional radio each week, they are listening less. And the industry is having to confront many challenges like those that have enticed Mr. Costa, including streaming audio, podcasting, iPods and Howard Stern on satellite radio».
« The amount of time people tune into radio over the course of a week has fallen by 14 percent over the last decade, according to Arbitron ratings.
«Larry R. Glassman, a surgeon who does lung transplants and commutes between Cold Spring Harbor and Manhasset, N.Y., each day, used to tune into radio for his 40-minute drive, particularly to hear his classic rock favorites. But now he subscribes to XM Radio, and recently had an XM receiver installed in a new boat. “Some of the programming I just flip over,” he said, adding that he would listen to XM in surgery if he could. Instead, “I use the iPod in the operating room.” Mr. Glassman, who is 51, said he turned a deaf ear to radio primarily because of the advertising and because he finds the playlists of his favorite stations too mainstream and limited»
(o título traduz a notícia da Radio INk; a mim parece-me que 27 por cento de pessoas a dizer que ouvem menos é relevante)
«Despite the availability of various new media to receive music and news, only a little more than one in four Americans (27 percent) say they are now listening to the radio less than they did five years ago. According to a survey commissioned by American Media Services, about half (51 percent) said their radio listening hasn’t changed during the past five years, and 21 percent said they are now listening more.
fonte: Radio Ink, 14/9/06, Radio Listening Remains Strong
«listeners have tastes, radio has genres», diz Mark Ramsey
«Internet and satellite radio have capitalized on broadcast radio's inability to give listeners what they truly seem to want - variety, voices of knowledge and authority, some sense of excitement, and the ability to hear what they want, whenever they want. Radio, as we know it, has been reborn. "The new radio formats are all about choice," says Spin magazine Executive Editor Doug Brod. "In a sense, this very choice may eventually bring about the end of the album as we know it. No longer do listeners have to buy entire albums when they can just pick and choose particular songs to download. This very efficiency is already having a tremendous impact on the art of the album-making. Artists can now release only a few songs at a time." Though its methods of delivery are changing, radio has once again become a key player, not just in shaping the way that we hear music, but in shaping the way that it is being made. If that's not a revolution, then it's certainly the seed of one.»
fonte: The Buffalo News, «The REBIRTH of RADIO», By JEFF MIERS, 7/23/2006
«Radio has a bright future! Really?
diz o eidtor do Audiographics, 13/7/06, http://www.audiographics.com/agd/071306-1.htm
«The BBC in a statement said that "The decision to bring the show to an end after 42 years has not been taken lightly and over the past few years every effort has been made to maintain the quality and distinctiveness of the show".
fonte: «BBC axe Top of the Pops following rise of digital downloads», Pocket-Lint, Stuart Miles, 20/6/06
O editor do site Audiographics esteve a ouvir um dos canais HD2 dos EUA e saiu desiludido, uma vez que é apenas um computador pré-programado e muitos jingles a promover a estação:
«Since Saturday, 6/17, I've been streaming WSMJ-HD2 through its online link. That it is solid music won't be challenged here. Though I will challenge calling it "radio."
When the above play through, they repeat. That's enough said about the programming of this new, exciting, HD2 radio station.
Mark Ramsey desenvolve, sem chegar a uma conclusão:
«It's an interesting point, and it's central to our HD radio plans (not to mention the plans for Internet radio and, dare I say it, good old-fashioned terrestrial radio).
When you take out (or never put in) the personality, when you lack the voices that connect us to the music and each other, when there is no promotion, no news, no traffic, no weather, no contesting, no feeling that what you're hearing is in any sense "live" or, for that matter even "living,"...
...is that really "radio"?
Is that what we want "radio" to be?
Is that what the audience comes to us for?» (http://www.hear2.com/2006/06/what_is_radio_a.html)
«A new survey from audio strategy firm hear2.0 finds that the vast majority of terrestrial radio listeners are satisfied with the job that the medium is doing. One thousand radio listeners between the ages of 12 and 54 were surveyed, with 74 percent saying they were satisfied by what radio has to offer.
Hear2.0 EVP Harve Alan said, "Given that some media prognosticators claim radio is dead or dying, we were pleasantly surprised at just how strong radio is; even with the youngest age groups." He added, "With only one format falling below 70% satisfaction and despite ongoing challenges from new media the American public still loves their terrestrial radio. This research illustrates the power of radio to entertain, inform, and satisfy."»
fonte: «Study: Radio Listeners Satisfied», FMQB, 7/6/06
A canadiana CBC está a produzir uma série de programas sobre o fim dos meios tradicionais.
«O fim da rádio» está aqui (o programa pode ser visto on line - já não digo o mesmo quanto a ouvir...)
Tópicos para o guião do programa:
Internet radio (Podcasts, satellite radio, mashups and downloads, mp3, p2p, wma, burning, ripping, streaming. So many busy new music activities and listening methods, and none of it coming from the good old fashioned radio. What's a poor broadcaster to do? If radio is dying, what do we need to know about what's replacing it? "Soma FM started because I couldn't find a station that played music that I liked," claims Rusty Hodge, the program director of internet radio station Soma FM. One of the most popular of the thousands of internet stations broadcasting online, Soma FM offers listeners a choice of seven unique radio stations)
Podcasting (Other musicians are finding ways to reach out to their fans directly. Michael Butler started sending out his band's music to fans across the world in a podcast. (see glossary) It evolved into The Rock and Roll Geek Show, a weekly podcast all about the latest rock/metal music from independent artists)
Satellite radio (Canada's newest satellite radio project, XM Satellite Radio is hoping to find listeners who will actually pay for their service. Satellite radio offers one hundred channels of digital quality music, sports, entertainment, news and information that's completely mobile. You can listen to it in your home, your car or at the park)
Digital radio (CHUM FM thinks the future is in digital radio. "DAB Radio is the next level of radio. It delivers CD quality sound and it also gives radio the opportunity to stream information back and forth," says Farina. And he points out that CHUM FM is still the most listened to fm radio station in Canada)
Music to the masses (Ralph Simon, Chairman of the Mobile Entertainment Forum says people's listening habits have changed. "People don't want to be tethered in front of a computer to get their music download. They want immediacy. They want it now. They want to be able to experience something because a part of this whole new music world is, it's called a "show me" culture.")
KCRW: Trying it all (KCRW is a traditional radio station, 89.9 on the dial in Los Angeles, that offers all the alternatives - podcasting, streaming, downloading, simulcasts, video, music sales - as well. And it's working. Subscribers are paying to listen from every U.S. state and around the world)
Três dos conselhos que o presidente da NAB dá á industria radiofónica (e televisiva) para reagir à «concorrência»:
1. « Exploiting “every new technology – on every new platform.” According to Rehr, broadcasters must move quickly to increase distribution channels for their content with the goal of being omnipresent in the culture, going “everywhere to everyone, through every device.”
2. Promoting the benefits of DTV and digital radio. He urged broadcasters to show consumers “the exciting possibilities of digital television before the DTV conversion, not when the DTV transition is upon us. But right now.” It is the broadcaster’s responsibility to inform viewers that “the most pristine signals they can receive” are over-the-air digital television. The NAB will be announcing a consumer DTV education program, he said.
3. Promoting greater competition among the cable, satellite and telecommunications companies.
Fonte: « NAB president: It’s time to go on the offensive» Apr 26, 2006 2:08 PM
... diz o presidente da NAB, National Association of Broadcasters: «To our competitors I say, ‘We will beat you,” he said during the Monday morning address delivered from the Las Vegas Hilton. “Radio’s history is one of meeting new competition head on and coming out on top. That hasn’t changed. All we seek is a level playing field.”
(fia-te na virgem, neste caso na história... e não corras - comentário meu!)
fonte: «David Rehr Warns Radio’s Competitors: ‘We Will Beat You’», Radio Ink, 26/4/06
(directamente da terra dos estudos, mais um...; feito com mil entrevistas no universo da população dos EUA)
«Survey: Radio is Important to Americans
The new findings complement those in AMS’ initial survey in January: 64 percent said they were listening to radio as much as, or more than, they were five years ago. In the AMS survey, 57 percent of men and 49 percent of women said they listen to radio at least daily. The availability of music, news and reports on weather and traffic continues to be the most often cited reasons for listening to the radio, with 98 percent of respondents saying they listen to radio for one of those features.
«A pesar de las aciagas predicciones de la segunda mitad de los años noventa, la radio está de regreso y, en muchas maneras, mas fuerte que nunca. Las ganancias están aumentando y la audiencia es constante. A medida que avanza un nuevo siglo vemos también como las fortalezas tradicionales de la radio siguen realzando el atractivo del medio. Ahora también es posible acceder, por medio de un teléfono celular, a estaciones de radio por Internet. Lo que hace de la radio parte esencial de esta época es su capacidad para llegar hasta nosotros mientras hacemos otra cosa. Podemos escucharla en el trabajo, en el automóvil o mientras hacemos ejercicio»
(Hausman, Benoit e O'Donnell, 2001: 351)
«During a Tuesday morning conference call with Wall Street analysts, Emmis CEO Jeff Smulyan addressed the question, “Is radio a lost cause? Standing up for the radio business, Smulyan replied, “It's not a lost cause, because we reach almost every American. If you look at leading forms of media, they are incredibly fragmented, and narrow. We reach almost every American, almost every day, where they live. We're relevant to them. They use us as companions. They use us as a source of entertainment. They rely on us for information, especially in critical times. For some reason, this is a business which has the perception that it's over. It's not over. It's a business that's been able to produce 45 cents on the dollar and still does. It's not over, but it's struggling."
fonte: «Smulyan On Radio: “It's Not Over”», Radio Ink, 19/4/06
«All those new digital media platforms that sometimes seem to bedevil radio managers — Internet radio, satellite, podcasting — are really new forms of radio and are a “testament to the popularity of radio programming.” So says Arbitron in releasing a new study it did with Edison Media Research.
“The proliferation of digital broadcast platforms such as Internet radio, satellite radio, HD and podcasting is a testament to the popularity of radio programming,” the research company stated in announcing the release of “The Infinite Dial: Radio’s Digital Platforms.”
Edison Media’s Larry Rosin said, “Our research shows that regardless of the platform consumers see all these options as merely being new forms of ‘radio.’”
The phone survey involved approximately 1,900 people»
fonte: «Study Sees New Media as ‘Expansion of Radio Market’´, RWonline, 13/4/06
Um estudo da Bridge Ratings sobre a erosão dos ouvintes da rádio convencional. Conclusões:
«Bridge Ratings reports that audience erosion from terrestrial radio is due to generally less time spent with AM/FM radio and more time spent with a variety of digital media. This includes MP3 players and iPods, Internet radio, satellite radio and CDs.
1. Terrestrial audience erosion to alternative audio entertainment continues to occur in young demographics.
Sobre o estudo:
«This study, which has been tracking such behavior since January, 2004, once again reveals behaviors assumed to be taking place.
«While upbeat about the future, Kaline said the medium could squander its opportunity if it doesn’t act quickly. Radio needs to embrace culture change, put consumers first – “don’t lose sight of the listener” when embracing new technologies -- and “get comfortable with being uncomfortable,” he said.
To that latter point, Kaline urged broadcasters to consider alliances it may have never dreamed of before. “Maybe you need to reach out to online, to mobile, even to satellite,” he suggested.» (fonte Billboard Radio monitor, Top Advertiser Says Radio Needs To Act Quickly, March 15, 2006, By Paul Heine)
«OTTAWA (CP) - Music via the Internet, satellite, IPods and a new generation of cellphones is taking its toll on old-fashioned commercial radio, and the industry wants federal broadcast regulators to help level the playing field. In a submission to the CRTC, the Canadian Association of Broadcasters warns that "a new generation of unregulated competition is upon us." That, plus huge increases in music copyright payments in recent years, means the outlook for private radio is uncertain. "This does not mean that more regulation is required, but rather more effective regulation needs to be designed," says Glenn O'Farrell, president of the CAB which represents more than 400 radio stations across the country. (...) The CAB projects a loss of listeners over the next decade to new audio technologies, warning the revenue losses could be as much as million by 2010, and even worse beyond that.» (fonte: Faced with new media competition, private radio makes proposals to CRTC, Canoe Money, 2006-03-16 13:50:00)
«Analyst sees 2006 as tough year for radio
The quarterly round of radio company conference calls is complete, and Goldman Sachs analyst Mark Wienkes didn’t find much that sounded encouraging for 2006. "Subpar fundamentals and uncompelling valuations keep us on radio’s sidelines, as stronger pricing power is needed to lift revenue growth, investor perception, and valuations. Of terrestrial radio operators, we rate only Clear Channel outperform, on superior fundamentals and discount valuation," he told investors. Wienkes sees five challenges facing radio in 2006. After Clear Channel’s Less is More initiative cut inventories over the course of 2005 - - Wienkes thinks by 1% industry-wide - - he expects overall spotloads to be flat in 2006. With increasing competition from iPods and other "new media" options, he’s looking for a 2% audience erosion this year. Given radio’s "anemic revenue growth," the analyst thinks pricing increases will be held to 3% in 2006. On the M&A front, he says to look for only a few private groups to sell - - with the obvious big exception of Univision. Radio valuations on Wall Street, Wienkes says, "seem fair, but not compelling, and they lack visible catalysts." Noting that the current consensus of Wall Street analysts is that radio revenues will grow 2% this year, the Goldman Sachs analyst thinks even that is too high. He’s looking for only 1%.»
fonte: RBR Newsletter, Volume 23, Issue 52, Jim Carnegie, 15/3/06)
Uma das características do segundo choque é que ele parece ter chegado sem aviso; pelo menos é o que se pode concluir de um conjunto de declarações feitas na década de 90 dando conta da satisfação e da saúde do meio. Estariam distraídos? Ou apenas adormecidos todos aqueles que, até esse altura, se contentavam em glorificar a sobrevivência da rádio? Um exemplo:
«Quando a televisão tornou-se popular, na década de 1950, surgiram previsões anunciando a morte do rádio. Passados mais de quarenta anos, o rádio é, hoje, mais empolgante e diversificado do que antes. A rádio local está crescendo muito rapidamente em diversas áreas do Reino Unido, que podem agora ter a oportunidade de desfrutar de uma ampla escolha de estilos e formatos radiofônicos. E milhões de pessoas podem buscar um conjunto de notícias de seu interesse através do rádio» (Chantler, Paul e Harris, Sim, Radiojornalismo, Summus, São Paulo, 1998, pág 15).
Excerto da intervenção de Bill Kennard (presidente da FCC) no congresso dos EUA sobre o futuro da rádio:
«The radio industry is robust and thriving and the prospects for future growth are excelent. Revenues in 1997 were over billion and radio stocks have seen record growth. Radio continues to connect people to their communities, perhaps more than any other medium. Just as the advent of cable television, direct broadcast salellites, and satellite radio did not adversely affect the success of radio, so is the fact that broadband Internet audio distribution will not kill free over-the-air radio broadcasting either. Radio remains unique as a local communications service, one that is the lifeblood of local information in all our communities and in our culture. To this day, radio stations provide local communities with vital local news and information -weather and traffic reports, agricultural forecasts, and school closings. Radio will continue to play a vital and profitable role in our nation's communities» (McCoy, 1999: 22/23).
«(...) the search for great radio talent around the country slowed. The majority of radio stations became stripped of personality - and personalities. The human touch was gone. In its place was the safe, predictable sound of radio-by-the-numbers. Many operators embraced this trend because it was cost-efficient. It offered the option of not paying big money for some zany morning man or wild night jock, because the research indicated that all they had to do was play the best-testing records and shut the air talent up" (McCoy, 1999:2).
«Buzz Bennett: Everybody today is surviving on research. People aren’t using their instincts. There’s no instinctual movement; it’s all rational movement, which is okay in a noncreative industry, but in radio, it takes people who want to drive themselves to create something new» (McCoy, 1999: 89)
Diz este artigo da Red Herring («Digital Radio Gets Fuzzy», March 2, 2006):
«As radio providers like XM and Sirius battle for control of car dashboards, new digital radio standards are likely to increase competition and confuse consumers, a study released Thursday said. North Americans will soon have the choice among XM, Sirius, and HD Radio receivers, said Frank Viquez, director of transportation research at ABI Research, which conducted the study. What’s more, they will also soon be offered multimedia broadcasting services like Qualcomm's MediaFLO service and Crown Castle’s Modeo digital video broadcasting on handsets service.»
(consequência pós-segundo choque...)
«Is radio in trouble?
"No and balderdash," Ed Christian said in response to his own question on Saga Communication’s conference call. He says terrestrial radio needs better PR to counter the barrage from satellite radio - - and insists terrestrial stations still have a good story to tell. "Give us some credit," he said to Wall Street. Christian pointed to ratings gains for Saga stations in many markets from the Fall Arbitron book. But he doesn’t deny that radio has some problems that it needs to deal with. As an industry, Christian said radio failed to anticipate that some traditional ad categories would ever fade - - as is obviously happening right now with auto - - and didn’t do enough to acquire new business. He also echoed concerns expressed last week by Radio One COO Mary Catherine Sneed about some radio companies going after market share, rather than upholding price discipline - - a short-term strategy with dire long-term consequences. But while 2006 is starting off rough, with most groups reporting soft ad demand for January and February, Christian says radio is still a good business. "We have, as an industry, caught a cold, but it is not the flu and we are certainly not suffering from H5N01 [bird flu]," Christian said.» (fonte RBR news,
Volume 23, Issue 42, Jim Carnegie, Editor & Publisher, Wednesday Morning March 1st, 2006)
«Al entrar en el nuevo milenio, la radiodifusión está generando más beneficios e ingresos que en cualquier otra época de su historia, aunque tal vez sus días estén contados. Pero quisiera aclarar esta aseveración. La programación transmitida por la radio seguirá existiendo, por lo menos en un futuro predecible, aunque el método o la manera principal de transmitida hasta sus oyentes cambiará debido a la banda ancha, a la fibra óptica y a las tecnologías por satél¡te. El propio Internet está revolucionando el mundo de la comunicación, lo que también incluye a la radio» (Michael C. Keith in Martinéz-Costa, 2001: 95)
"Sin embargo el momento radiofónico actual es complejo como pocos en la historia del medio y requiere una abnegada e ingeniosa atención. Y si la circunstancia merece esmero, reflexión y vigilancia es porque la situación es mucho más peligrosa que la generada por la llegada de la televisión. Posiblemente este sea el conflicto más complejo de los vividos por la radio hasta el momento presente porque afecta a su propia raíz. A la radio y - no se olvide-, a los demás medios de comunicación" (Faus Belau in Martinéz-Costa, ed, 2001: 16)
«According to a study conducted by Research Director, Inc., time spent listening to radio in the top 12 markets averaged nineteen hours and fifty-five minutes. This represents a 3.4% decline in the past three years.
"Relativamente à rádio, tem-se observado um acentuado decréscimo da sua quota de publicidade desde meados de 2002. Esse declínio coincidiu com a propagação dos suportes on-line e obrigou a um reposicionamento estrutural estratégico. Neste sentido, a rádio, num claro exemplo de que a tecnologia digital, mais de que um concorrente directo de mercado, poderá funcionar como uma plataforma complementar, decidiu beneficiar de algumas das mais-valias proporcionadas pelas mesmas:
- Disponibilização de formas alternativas de consumo de rádio (o consumo de rádio no Reino Unido a partir das novas tecnologias aumentou 22% em 2004);
- Aumento do consumo de rádio no exterior das residências e dos carros;
- Atracção e fidelização dos consumidores mais jovens;
Em suma, o futuro da rádio afigura-se bem mais positivo do que há 4 anos atrás porque as tecnologias digitais criaram novas oportunidades de mercado e diversificaram a oferta das mesmas.»
("O investimento publicitário global por suporte de comunicação", Obercom, (E.P) 10-02-2006)
"The attack is arriving in the form of satellite radio and its portable receivers, online niche and genre "broadcasts" from music services (MSN, Real, Launch), and even homegrown podcasts" ("Everything kills the radio star", PC Mag, 14/9/05, por Lance Ulanoff)
"La radio se vio forzada a achicar sus estudios, a callal’ sus orquestas, a despedir sus compañías teatrales. Vio apagarse su época de oro; adiós radioteatro, adiós ’mamarrachito mío’, adiós suspenso. Todo quedó reducido a música y noticias. Y un nuevo vestuario: objetividad, seriedad, prisa. Porque dentro del botín resignó su bien más preciado: la imaginación. Olvidando que el hombre tuvo la literatura, y aún antes los juegos y las plantas mágicas, para tener pantallas propias en la cabeza; nadie comenzó a soñar con los rayos catódicos" (Alejandro Luna, "La gran pantalla a punto de enmudecer?", revista Códigos, nº 2, General Roca, 1989, apud Haye, 1995: 23)
«Radio has been declared dead many times, especially with the rise of the internet. When streaming audio became practical in the late 90s it was often declared that every person with a ‘net connection would have her own station. The birth of satellite radio, with hundreds of channels of narrowcasted nationwide channels, brought more exclamations. In the last eighteen months podcasting has been the latest rhetorical nail in radio’s coffin, joining ‘net radio’s promise of “every person a broadcaster” with the multi-channel appeal of satellite radio. But radio isn’t dead. Rather, it’s strangely revitalized. The death of radio is really the death of one dominant mode of radio — commercial music radio.»
«Podcasting and the revitalization of radio», Mediageek, Wed 4 Jan 2006
Um estudo acabado de divulgar diz que a erosão das sondagens de rádio norte-americana (convencional) detectada no ano passado estará a ser invertida:
"The Center for Media Research reports that according to initial results from a continuing Audience Attrition project by Bridge Ratings & Research, audience erosion from terrestrial radio – due to less time spent with AM/FM radio and more time spent with a variety of digital media, including MP3 players, iPods, Internet radio, and satellite radio – has returned somewhat in the 4th quarter of 2005.
fonte: "Turnaround Seen In Terrestrial Radio"
«RADIO’S BIGGEST CHALLENGE in 2006 could be coping with the expanding definition of radio. As far as media buyers and advertisers are concerned, and for that matter the consumer, radio is no longer just AM and FM. It’s also Internet radio and satellite radio. And while satellite radio’s 9 million subscribers and Internet radio’s 20 million weekly listeners are dwarfed by traditional radio’s 230 million weekly listeners, the impact of these new media on the consumer cannot be ignored. According to a focus group study conducted last fall by Jacobs Media, consumers aged 18-34 consider radio as “anything with a DJ.” Young listeners say they find traditional radio stale. On the flip side, they don’t think they ought to pay for radio.
“Radio isn’t a growth medium. It’s misunderstood right now, even among its owners,” said Maribeth Papuga, senior vp and director of local broadcast for MediaVest, at the recent UBS media conference. In many ways, traditional radio is coping with the fundamental shift in consumer choices by embracing a multiplatform radio model, a trend that is likely to accelerate this year. The nation’s largest radio companies, Clear Channel and CBS Radio (formerly Infinity Broadcasting), took critical steps in 2005 to leverage their content onto the Internet, whether through streaming or offering content for downloading. The hope is that in 2006, those baby steps will lead to a solid foundation for a new, growing and lucrative business.»
excerto do Forecast 2006, do Mediaweek, http://mediaweek.com/mediaweek/images/pdf/Forecast.pdf
A crise que a rádio vive nos últimos anos também é resultado da falta de evolução tecnológica. A rádio, que sempre viveu associada aos desenvolvimentos tecnológicos, às pequenas grandes invenções que a fizeram sobreviver noutras décadas, não conhece desde 1960, data em que o FM estéreo foi testado pela primeira vez (na KDKA-FM de Pittsburgh), qualquer inovação significativa. São quase 40 anos de estagnação no que diz respeito à tecnologia intrínseca que serve a difusão hertziana (porque a internet é outro pressuposto).
Uma consulta à lista "Broadcast History Timeline" mostra isso mesmo...
A rádio via satélite surge como oportunidade de negócio mas também como resposta à estagnação manifestada pela rádio hertziana. Alguns excertos do artigo Can Digital Kill the Radio Star? da Wired (
"Traditional radio isn't doing the job in servicing customers," said William Kidd, satellite analyst at investment firm C.E. Unterberg, Towbin. Kidd said 80 percent of all listening today in the car is radio, and that the industry -- which hasn't seen substantial change since FM was invented more than 60 years ago -- is ripe for innovation. "It's hard to imagine that the status quo will be preserved," Kidd said.(...)
The broadcasters believe that customers will leap at the chance to pay for quality radio for the same reason cable TV has proven a success: better variety and fewer commercials. Radio listeners frustrated by the exclusionary and repetitive practices of the FM stations that have driven listeners to online services will identify with their specialty channels.
Former DJ Tom Versen, Sirius's director of production and creative services, said traditional radio only plays one-third of the music released each year. He said ad-supported radio has stagnated towards repeating old standards instead of taking chances on new content. "If I hear 'Dust in the Wind' one more time, I'm going to run my car off the road," Versen said. "
Um excerto deste artigo "Free Radio Biz Tunes Out Sat Gains", Dec. 22, 2005, By Alex Woodson and Georg Szalai, The Hollywood Reporter
"Smulyan also invoked an old rule in the media industry that says newer forms of media rarely fully replace older ones. "The iPod of today was the CD five years ago and the cassette 15 years ago and the A-track 20 years ago and the citizen’s band radio 30 years ago," he said. "The reality is people have fragmentation, but we haven’t seen anything replace this particular radio experience."
Dickey also suggested that despite good marketing, satellite radio has little to differentiate itself from terrestrial radio. "We’re in the content business, and the only real content that they have is Howard Stern," he said. "They don’t have any real exclusive content."
"As I think we can all agree, commercial broadcast radio in the United States, for the most part, sucks. AM radio has been relegated to talk and FM stations play music — of sorts. Stations are Xerox copies of similar stations, playing the same songs over and over again", diz Gary Krakow, colunista da MSNBC, neste texto "New radio formats sacrifice sound qualitity; End of radio? Banish bad radio instead!" (Updated: 5:41 p.m. ET March 17, 2005)
Da notícia da Reuters "Tecnologias causam interferência no futuro do rádio" (5 de dezembro de 2005, 15h59) três razões que mostram que "O setor de rádio pode perder importância no mercado de mídia, dadas as ameaças que novas tecnologias acarretam para os seus negócios, disseram executivos de publicidade durante a Reuters Media and Advertising Summit".
1) As rádios via satélite, players digitais de música (iPod e outros) e a Internet estão lentamente desgastando o domínio das rádios sobre o entretenimento e publicidade locais. E estão a dar aos ouvintes a possibilidade de ouvirem o que querem quando querem.
2) Os dois serviços de rádio via satélite (XM Satellite Radio Holdings e a Sirius Satellite Radio) estão a oferecer mais canais, a maioria dos quais sem publicidade, por uma taxa mensal de assinatura.
3) A comercialização excessiva. O crescimento de receita das rádios vem se desacelerando desde 2003, de acordo com o Radio Advertising Bureau. Além disso, os anúncios para rádio também se tornaram menos memoráveis e criativos, disseram os executivos
CONCLUSÃO: "O rádio enfrenta uma tempestade de ameaças tecnológicas", disse David Verklin, presidente-executivo da agência de compra de mídia Carat Americas. "É preciso que o setor se reinvente."
PS - o original da notícia (completa) está aqui: http://today.reuters.com/summit/summitarticle.aspx?type=summitNews&summit=MediaSummit05&storyid=2005-12-02T202107Z_01_FLE268238_RTRUKOC_0_US-MEDIA-SUMMIT-RADIO.xml&archived=true
A rádio actual também se pôs a jeito para ser confrontada com uma crise grave, ao ficar demasiado dependente da música, o que provocou, no dizer de Andrew Crisell, um “impoverishment of the medium” (Crisell, 1994: 65)
Are radio group executives underestimating the influence - or the threat - of other digital media, including satellite radio, iPods and wireless broadband technologies?
(entrevista a Robert Struble, president, CEO and chairman of the iBiquity Corporation, iBiquity's Robert Struble: If You Aren't Thinking Digital, You're Smokin' Dope (04/11/05), by Reed Bunzel)
Por outras palavras, a rádio foi evoluindo, ao longo de décadas, para um ponto em que quase obrigou os ouvintes a procurar alternativas, nomeadamente de música. A oferta era tão reduzida e repetitiva e os ouvintes queriam mais:
Corey Deitz, "Maybe Commercial Radio Didn't Know JACK All These Years", Jul 20 2005:
"Some stations had libraries of 130, 140, maybe 200 songs. Imagine that: out of all the music created over the years, it was all strained down to the safe stuff, the songs that “tested” best. These were the only songs anyone liked. Yep! Researchers and consultants were quite sure. After all, they were tested! So stations played a select amount of songs – often – to the increasing dismay of listeners who inevitably heard those same songs on similarly formatted stations with similar names from city to city. There was no escaping it.
Listeners began to wonder if there was a better way for them to obtain variety in their music. This problem was partly solved through the advent of the first portable cassette player in 1964 by the Norelco Company which begot the 8-track player in 1966 from Motorola which begot the Walkman in 1979 from Sony which begot CDs and portable CD players in 1982 from Phillips. "
"Well, I think it’s obvious who was right all along: The listeners.
They just couldn’t prove it until technology gave them iPods and other mp3 players so they could finally program their own portable stations and turn off the ones that refused to play the variety they really wanted to hear."
A rádio que sai da herança televisiva é marcada por diversos factores. Merayo Pérez (pág. 315) distingue cinco, como preparação para o segundo choque:
“1) Las consecuencias de la intervención arbitraria de las Administraciones Públicas 2) La ruptura en el equilibrio de las estructuras de propiedad a favor de las emisoras públicas que, sin embargo, no tienen semejante predominio en cuanto al número de sus oyentes 3) La crisis por la que atraviesa la OM 4) La obsolescencia tecnológica de las emisoras y las deficientes estructuras empresariales y de gestión 5) La competencia de las nuevas ofertas televisuales”.
Quando já se fala que os downloads (e a música digital, de uma forma geral) vão acabar com a rádio de música.
Em Londres, dia 24 de Novembro, o assunto vai ser amplamente discutido (tirei do programa oficial):
"TECHNOLOGY KILLED THE RADIO FORMAT...?How are music radio stations responding to the huge growth in availability of music? Is the traditional music policy/format still relevant in a world of iTunes, Napster, 40GB of music in your back pocket, online personalized juke boxes and on-demand radio listening? How should linear radio react to this seismic shift in the availability of music and content? What do our listeners expect from music radio now, and what can linear radio do to keep people tuned in? Panel discussion with contributions from both sides of the divide, including Napster’s Jeff Smith (ex-Radio 1).
This is the year that podcasting and on-demand media consumption have started to go mainstream. But what does this mean for the radio industry? Where kind of opportunities and threats does on-demand content offer in terms of making money, listener loyalty, reaching new audiences, managing costs, rights, formats and production issues? And then there's the question of measuring the audiences"
"The attack is arriving in the form of satellite radio and its portable receivers, online niche and genre "broadcasts" from music services (MSN, Real, Launch), and even homegrown podcasts. Now the radio industry is preparing its counterattack, and it's twofold: One part is forward-leaning, the other completely retro. The forward-leaning part is the growing availability of podcasts from commercial and nonprofit radio stations. The latter have made the best use of these time-shifting portable audio packages. NPR, for example, offers most of its popular programs as podcasts. It's a great way to let your audience listen when and where they want. But, as far as I can tell, podcasts are of little use to commercial, news, and Top 40 music stations. For them, the retro approach is taking hold. Station after station is reintroducing Internet radio. Perhaps you remember the first Internet-radio boom."
excerto de PC Magazine
Esta é uma das perguntas que se vão fazer num congresso a realizar em Londres, em 24 de Novembro.
"Can radio exist as a 'stand-alone" medium in ten years' time? What are the major threats to our traditional business, in a world of iPods, on-demand video, the Web and mobile television? Consultant and traveller Jonathan Marks has some non-British perspectives on tomorrow's media consumption. The audience is up to something..."
"How are music radio stations responding to the huge growth in availability of music? Is the traditional music policy/format still relevant in a world of iTunes, Napster, 40GB of music in your back pocket, online personalized juke boxes and on-demand radio listening? How should linear radio react to this seismic shift in the availability of music and content? What do our listeners expect from music radio now, and what can linear radio do to keep people tuned in?"
"Após um longo período de crescimento sustentado, a rádio enfrenta nos últimos anos uma diminuição da taxa de aumento das suas receitas.
Esta conclusão surge no âmbito do Relatório “Radio’s leading Indicator” publicado pela Arbitron que, além de fornecer uma análise da evolução da rádio nos Estados Unidos, apresenta uma avaliação dos impactos dos indicadores de audiência nas receitas do sector. Os detalhes acerca da metodologia podem ser consultados no documento.
Ao longo dos anos 90, a taxa de crescimento das receitas da rádio ultrapassou a da maioria dos restantes meios. Além disso, de 1998 a 2000, o negócio da rádio obteve um crescimento inédito, que foi consistente nas várias regiões do país.
No entanto, em 2001, este crescimento estagnou, consequência directa da recessão sentida em todas as áreas de negócio devido aos impactos do 11 de Setembro na economia americana. Apesar de ter recuperado da crise logo no final de 2002, as receitas da rádio têm crescido a ritmos cada vez mais lentos desde então.
Não obstante, a Arbitron conclui que a rádio, pelas suas características (nomeadamente a portabilidade e a capacidade de segmentação que proporciona) se adapta às necessidades actuais dos publicitários, prevendo assim uma aceleração da taxa de crescimento para breve.
Por outro lado, é de realçar que a conjugação dos dois principais indicadores de audiência de rádio nos Estados Unidos, a audiência média e o tempo médio de audiência, não aponta num sentido único para o futuro da rádio. Enquanto que o número de pessoas que se ligam à rádio permanece relativamente estável desde 1999 (cerca de 94% dos americanos ouve rádio a cada semana), existem sinais de que o tempo dispendido com a audição está a diminuir (em 1999, cerca de 21 horas por semana; em 2004, cerca de 19 horas e meia).
Este texto de Corey Deitz é revelador de algumas coisas que também aqui têm sido ditas:
"«Pay-for-Play», «Payola», «Bribery», or whatever you want to call it, has had a relationship with Radio practically since Radio had a relationship with listeners. The latest disclosures from Attorney General Spitzer’s office can only reinforce the disenchantment of some radio listeners who feel many radio stations provide little variety, music repetition, and unresponsive attitudes.
Is it any wonder the technologies of mp3 players, Podcasting, Satellite Radio, Streaming Internet Radio, radio on cell phones have been embraced so quickly by the public? Music companies will probably always try to influence radio stations to play songs. But, for the first time since Radio first captured the imagination of millions, the masses now have their own “Pay-for-Play” technology: an iPod, CD burners, and downloads. "
Encontrei na internet este textoda espanhola Elsa Moreno Moreno, doutorada em Navarra (1998)com uma tese sobre a música na rádio. Um resumo da tese dela está aqui (tentarei ler, um dia, uma vez que não está editada).
O texto em questão (apresentado, por aquilo que percebi, numas jornadas cientificas em 2000) suscita uma série de questões directamente relacionadas com as preocupações que aqui tenho vindo a desenvolver e que continuarão a crescer.
Elsa centra a sua abordagem nos desafios que a tecnologia da rádio está a provocar à própria rádio. Eu tentarei, para o âmbito do meu trabalho, juntar uma questão exógena: a rádio está a ser pressionada não apenas por si própria mas também por elementos exteriores, como a música digital. A esse propósito, este texto de Elsa também aborda a questão da música na rádio.
Vou fazer uma digestão da coisa e voltarei ao assunto.
Corey Deitz: "It’s tough times for AM and FM radio. Both are under increased pressure by competition that didn’t exist just 10 years ago: Satellite Radio, Webcasting, Podcasting, iPods and mp3 players, audio content on cell phones, and more.
"O consumidor actualmente pode consumir música através de leitores portáteis, através do computador, do telemóvel. Perante esta realidade, a rádio tem que se adaptar aos novos hábitos de consumo e à nova cultura musical ou perderá cada vez mais audiência" (obercom)
O estudo aqui.
Um excerto: "(...)the synergy between digital music formats, portable digital music players, personal computers and the Internet has created better and more alluring alternatives to traditional radio, forcing music radio to either adapt or die."
As emissoras locais devem ser mais inovadoras para poderem sobreviver aos novos emissores via satelite, aos CDs, iPods, leitores de música digital segundo a opinião de espertos da indústria (obercom)
Facing sluggish growth and the perception that traditional radio is on the decline, AM-FM radio operators are banding together in ways that once were improbable.
(...) the study is remarkable for another reason: it’s the product of a million-a-year, industry-funded research group whose mission is to help radio station owners combat the growing popularity of subscription-based satellite radio and the iPod portable music player, among other competitive new technologies.
(...) Today radio station owners recognize that their main threats are external. "Now they’re trying to make sure they all have a seat at the (advertisers’) table," said Fries.
(...) Radio, for instance, is touting its move toward high-definition radio. The industry is also embracing a popular new practice called "podcasting," in which users can download popular radio shows onto their computer hard drives or a portable device."
fonte: Old media shout to be heard, CNNmoney,
Uma das ideias mais interessantes a que já cheguei, desde que comecei esta pesquisa, é que - por regra - os sistemas/dispositivos que ameaçam a rádio tal qual a conhecemos hoje são também os mesmos que lhe podem dar vida no futuro. Ou seja, as ameaças são tambem uma oportunidade! Complicado? Veja-se a Internet: pode ser a sobrevivência, mas pode acabar com a escuta clássica; o podcasting pode retirar ouvintes mas pode trazer ouvintes! Confuso?
Estou certo que voltarei a este tema muitas vezes.
Mas esta ideia de que um perigo pode ser uma coisa boa já tem cinco mil anos! O caracter chinês para descrever o conceito de crise junta dois símbolos: um quer dizer perigo; outro oportunidade! (já agora, por curiosidade...)
A rádio continua a ser líder como meio de audição de música, mas os hábitos de ouvir música em leitores portáteis de música digital, em «sites» de música on line ou no computador pessoal estão aumentar, segundo um relatório divulgado pela NPD (Obercom).
Um excerto do estudo: "Radio remains the most popular way to listen to music; however, radio listening actually declined four percent since last year (194 million people aged 13 and over listened to music on the radio in March 2005, versus 203 million who listened in March 2004). By contrast, listening to music stored on a computer rose by 22 percent (63.2 million to 77.2 million), online radio listening increased 18 percent (45.3 million to 53.5 million) and free streaming of online music increased 37 percent (33.7 million to 46.1 million)".
Corey Deitz, do About Radio, na crónica desta semana: "Did Video kill the Radio star? Nope. Did Internet Streaming kill terrestrial stations? Uh uh. Did Satellite Radio kill AM and FM? Not yet. But..."
Listeners are losing interest in radio, with its poor reception and irritating commercials, and getting more interested in the digital gadgets that adapt to our listening habits as fast as those habits change
"(...) Can you imagine civilized living without someone sending news, music and talk across the airwaves to your radio? Well start doing so because believe it or not radio has suddenly become a technological dinosaur – at least in any form looking like radio today."
(via A Rádio em Portugal)
TAMPA - Every day, Katie Swegle can be found with plugs in her ears and white wires dangling down to a credit-card shaped gadget clipped to her waistband.
The iPod mini, a 0 digital music player from Apple Computer Inc., is a constant companion of the 19-year-old University of Tampa sophomore.
(via Ponto media)
Transistor kills the radio star?
Um blogue de suporte a uma investigação sobre a rádio do futuro - ou o que quer que ela se venha a chamar...
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